Linux

CHMOD 775 , CHMOD 755 Meaning – Managing File Permission with CHMOD

chmod 775

chmod command is one of the useful commands in user and file management (especially script files). Here we are going to explain to you chmod 775 , 755 & File permissions 

File Permissions in Linux using Chmod

As you know the file system of linux has a file access and control mechanism which determines how and who can access a file stored in a linux system. This mechanism is based on two parts i.e. namely Classes and Permissions.

Classes determines who can access the files while Permissions decides how the file can be accessed to the user.

Types of Classes in Chmod

Three types of classes exits in linux i.e. Owner, Group, Others.

  • The owner is the creator of files / folder in linux. By default all the file and folders you create are owned by you, until you change the permissions manually.
  • The Group consists of multiple users who share same permissions and user privilege.
  • Others means the general public.

Permission Types in Linux

Next is permission , which are of three types based on a file or Folder, which you can either read, write or execute.

  • Read :- One can read a file but they can’t modify the contents. In case of Folder , you can see the files inside Folder, but you can’t delete or add files into folder.
  • Write :- Here you can modify file contents & in Folder you can delete and add files into the folder.
  • Execute :- This permission allows one to run a file (mainly script).

If you combine the use of class and permission , you can control users on how they can access a file and what actions they can do or what they should not.

This can be understood by an example i.e. Owner has all the permissions (read, write and execute) to access a file. So if aren’t the owner of file /folder then you have to change the permissions to get the owner access to the file. The ownership of a file can be changed to any user as per requirements. The web server may won’t allow you to upload a file , in this case you are not having the enough permissions to add a file in a folder.

Chmod Number assignment

Now I expect you got the basic concept of classes and permissions , so we can go forward to the number i.e. “775” & “777”.

The file and folder is having a 8-bit data that controls the permissions mechanism. The basic binary form is “000” which means no permissions to any form.

  • As you set the “Read” permission , it adds 4-bit data which makes it “100” or a 4 in the usual decimal format.
  • Granting a write permission adds 2 bit data i.e “010” or 2 in decimal form.
  • Adding a “Execute” permission adds 1-bit to the data, which will result in “001”, or “1” in decimal form.

Numbers assigned to Read , Write & Execute

In other words

  1. Read is equivalent to ‘4’.
  2. Write is equivalent to ‘2’.
  3. Execute is equivalent to ‘1’

So as u decide to set permissions , we have to add the numbers. For example if we set permissions to read and write , then its like 6 (4 + 2) for the permission. For read, write and execute, we will use ‘7’ (4 + 2 + 1) for the permission. Here’s the different permutation:

Chmod All Combinations

  • 0 – no permission
  • 1 – execute
  • 2 – write
  • 3 – write and execute
  • 4 – read
  • 5 – read and execute
  • 6 – read and write
  • 7 – read, write, and execute

Using the numbers you can grant permissions to a file and add the numbers accordingly. So just understand this the three digits are “777”. First digit is for Owner, second or Group and third digit is for Others. If you assign “777” for a user then you can give all permissions for a file to all users.

String  Permissions it provide
755It is used in web server. The owner of file has all the permissions but all two i.e. Group and Others have permission to read and execute,they can’t make changes to the file.
777This number provides all the permissions of file to all three types of users. Every user can read , write and execute the file. It allows the users to add any type of code to your file. This is mainly applicable to the images in a website.
644The owner can read and write while every other can only read it. No other can execute the file too.
655The owner can read and write but can’t execute the file. Everyone except owner can read and execute but they can’t modify the file.

Setting File Permissions in Command Line

Linux lets you set all the file permissions by right click on the folder and by selecting “Properties”. The permission tab will let you assign permissions to the Owner , Group & Others.

The other way is terminal , where you can change the permission via Chmod. If you use chmod 777 that means you assigned all the permissions i.e. to make file readable, writable and executable by everyone.

chmod 775 /path/to/file

chmod command uses & Explanation

chmod is a command to change permission of a file. It stands for change mode. The number “775”  is to provide permission to the file. There are three type of permissions.

  1. r stand for read .its value is 4.
  2. w stand for the write.its value is 2.
  3. x stand for the execute.its value is 1.

If you assign a user 7 , then you are giving them read, write and execute permission to the user. The remaining part is 75 , which is explained here.

Example to Understand Chmod 775

If you enter a command  ls -la or ls -li or ls -l , any of these commands will  show all the files like this.

 drwxr-xr-x 2 amiss amiss 4096 Jan 29 09:48 Templates

Here d stands for directory as templates is a directory.

now rest remaining 9 character.

  1. The first 3 characters are owner means whom created this file , so he has all the permissions i.e. rwx (read , write , execute).
  2. The next 3 characters is for group. The group can have one or more users whom are giving permission for a file as decided by you. The group has execute and read permission but they can’t write it.
  3. The last is for other users i.e. permission for the read and execute.

So basically if you do 775 , then you are assigning same permissions to the owner , group and other users for a particular file which is written above.

Command for change the file permission in Linux – Chmod 775 syntax

chmod 775 filename

Hope the article helps you to understand the concept of permissions in a Linux system and the meaning of “777” & “775”.

Introduction to Parrot Linux – How to use ParrotSec Security OS PDF / Basic Commands in Parrot Operating System

ParrotSec Security OS PDF

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial is a popular pentesting OS used by penetration testers. Here we are providing you some simple commands for the same in PDF. 

Hacking cannot be done without tools. These tools are the foundations of hacking.Today we are going to provide you some details about Parrot Linux. A Linux distribution which is helpful for the hackers to grow some knowledge & practice it.

Parrot Linux install – Parrot OS 3.11 Latest version Review

Parrot Linux is a very simple Operating System that is a very user friendly OS used for the purpose of Hacking. Many tools & software packages are already packed in it. This bunch of software are used for hacking as well as another daily usage.It is closely related to Debian Linux.

Features of Parrot 3.11 Review

The new release has so many new improvements & security fixes compared to the previous versions.

  • Updated version of the Linux 4.14 kernel.
  • A new car hacking menu now contains a collection of useful open source tools in the automotive industry to test real world cars or simulate CANBus networks.
  • Metasploit and postgresql are now patched to work flawlessly out of the box in live mode.
  • Other important updates include Firefox 58, increased installer stability, many updated security tools and some important graphic improvements.
  • Parrot Studio was reintroduced with many improvements, this special derivative of Parrot is designed for multimedia production as an improved version of Parrot Home for workstations, with many useful productivity tools pre-installed.
  • This release will probably be the last version of the 3.x series (except for eventual security updates), and we wanted to include some of the changes that we planned for parrot 4.x as a gift for our community.

Book to learn Parrot OS

Features & specification of Parrot Linux – Parrot Security OS Tutorial PDF

Parrot linux is based on kernel 4.1 & debian 8. It’s desktop is based on MATE. Display manager is “lightdm”.There are many features in this linux which specifically places it as a unique one.

Features of Parrot Linux – Parrot OS Tools

Anti-Forensic Tools

A very unique feature that makes it different from other Linux OS. Tools that can encrypt a file, partition or whole drive.Like this there are many other anti-forensic tools which can be used by businesses to secure their data.

Pandora’s Box

This tool is a very useful tool for a forensic expert. As you know the data used by computer is stored in RAM temporarily & get erased after the computer is shut down. The statement above is false partially. Pandora’s box is a tool that is used by the forensic expert to recover the data which was on the RAM after shutdown. This can disclose all the details or tasks that were done by the previous user.

This tool will ask you to opt for the data to store secretly when the user is going to shutdown the system.This tool can be activated by the Super User only.Pandora’s box can remove the data from RAM if required.

RAM only surfing

This is a browser called iceweasel that will surf Internet but will provide any access to your hard drive. The data you will access in the browser can not be seen to other users. But still there will a question that the data in RAM can be accessed , Pandora’s Box will look after this.

Anonymous Surfing

There is tool known as Anonsurf which helps in surfing Internet without leaving any traces of your Identity. This is done by TOR browser. All the traffic of the user will be directed by TOR browser. In India, TOR networks are active, so the anonymous surfing can be done easily. It will also hide your DNS via TOR.

Penetration Testing

Penetration testing is one of the critical testing of a software or network. This type of testing helps the hacker to know about the anomalies in the system. After he will knew about the bugs in that system He can help the system owner to increase the security towards it. While this information can be used in some unethical ways too. I won’t suggest you to think like that.

There are many tools by which pen testing can be done. Some of them are packet sniffer,man in the middle attacks, brute force attacks etc. If you are familiar in using Linux then you must know about the tools used in Kali & Backtrack linux, the it would be very easy to switch on to Parrot Linux.

This is a very summarized introduction about Parrot Linux. This will help the users to know more about the Parrot linux. In the next section. I will be telling about the installation of Parrot Linux.

Parrot OS Commands Tutorial PDF

  • sudo : – This command is used to get the Admin Access after you enter admin password.
  • su: – This command is for Root Access.
  • apt-get install: – This command install Tools from Distro’s Server.
  • apt-get update: – This command is used to check Update Repository From  Distro’s server.

Parrot Security OS System Requirements

The system requirements for Parrot are:

  • CPU: x86 with at least 700Mhz
  • Architecture: i386, amd64 (x86-64bit), 486 (legacy x86), armel, and armhf
  • RAM: At least 256MB for i386 and 320MB for amd64. 512MB recommended
  • GPU: No graphic acceleration required
  • HDD: ~16GB required for installation
  • BOOT: Legacy bios preferred

Buy These Linux Books to get a Kick Start in Linux Career

  • apt-get upgrade: – This is used to download Update Repository From  Distro’s server.
  • git clone: – This command is used to clone any file from GitHub Website.
  • cd .. : – Command to go back one step in a directory.
  • clear: – This command is used to clear the Terminal.
  • poweroff :- This command is to ShutDown the system.
  • 9. chmod +x Example.py : –  This command adds the executable permission for a file.
  •  ./ : – This Command Is Use For Run Python And Perl Programs. (./example.py )
  • ls: – Shows the list of files in the current Directory.

Download Parrot OS Tutorial PDF

Parrot Security OS default password and username – Parrot OS root password

In Parrot Linux live environment, the default username is user and the default password is toor.

Parrot Security OS 3.9 (Intruder) review & DownloadParrot OS 3.9 is the latest OS that is released by FrozenBox. This latest version of OS has mostly the same features that the former version has.The main Features of Parrot 3.6 are

  1. Fire-jail sand-boxing
  2. AppArmor,
  3. SELinux
  4. Tomoyo support

If you find the information useful then please give us your feedback to us & let us know about my work. You can also contact me via Facebook. Thank You.

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial is a popular pentesting OS used by penetration testers. Here we are providing you some simple commands for the same in PDF.

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Kali Linux Terminal commands Cheat Sheet list PDF – User Guide for Kali OS

Kali Linux command list pdf download cheat sheet with examples. All basic commands to Advance or pro level.

A-Z Kali Linux Commands — Also Included Kali Command Line List PDF

This article will provide you the commands based on the level. There are so many types of commands in the Linux OS. So you can see the details below.

Introduction to Kali Linux

Kali Linux is a Debian based Linux distro that is used in digital forensics & pentesting applications. It is made & updated periodically by Offensive security. The main developers of Kali Linux are Mati Aharoni, Devon Kearns, and Raphaël Hertzog.

Why Kali Linux?

Kali Linux is a special linux distro made with the purpose of pentesters. You can install any linux distro & make it work like Kali, but don’t you think a already available product is there.

Most Popular Tools in Kali Linux

Kali Linux has released their 2017.3 version of it’s OS. There are more than 600 applications in the collection. The most popular ones are

  1. Nmap (port scanner)
  2. Wireshark (a packet analyzer),
  3. John the Ripper (a password cracker)
  4. Aircrack-ng (a software suite for penetration-testing wireless LANs),
  5. Burp suite and OWASP ZAP (both web application security scanners).

Kali Linux is very independent in terms of installation. You can install it in Hard Disk, live CD or live USB, or it can run within a virtual machine. Metasploit framework also supports Kali.

All Kali Linux Commands

There are mainly four types of commands in a Kali Linux OS.

  • File & directory commands
  • Process scheduling commands
  • Search commands
  • Disk commands

File & directory commands

 Commands Description
 cd change directory
 pwd present working directory
 cp copy one or more files from one directory to another
 clearclear terminal screen
 basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
 cat Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 cmp Compare two files
 comm Compare two sorted files line by line
 cp  Copy one or more files to another location
 csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
 cut Divide a file into several parts
 dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
 du Estimate file space usage

Process scheduling commands

 Commands Description
 fuserIdentify/kill the process that is accessing a file
 kill  Stop a process from running
 killall Kill processes by name
 pkill  Stop processes from running
 ps Process status

Search commands

 Commands Description
 egrep Search files for lines that match an extended expression
 fgrep Search files for lines that match a fixed string
 find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 grep Search files for lines that match a given pattern

Disk commands

 Commands Description
 ram ram disk device
 sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
 cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
 ddConvert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
 df Display free disk space
 fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

That’s all for now. If you like this article, then please drop a comment for us. Your feedbacks are always welcome. Thank You.

Why Kali Linux is not for a beginner who has just started Using Linux

Why Kali Linux is not for a beginner who has just started Using Linux
Why Kali Linux is not for a beginner who has just started Using Linux

Hello my friends who read this blog from a while , others who are new here can also check the other posts from this small tech blog. I have heard so many things about Kali Linux. Many of us who want to start hacking must have heard about this Linux Distro.

This is why install this Operating system in our PC as a Primary OS or may be via Dual Boot with Windows. If you are also trying to learn some hacking & want to grow your career in hacking, then you must have also thought to install Kali Linux.

This article is written with the purpose to clear some of the doubts to the students / learner who are inclines over Kali Linux.

An Introduction to Kali Linux

Kali Linux is a Linux based Operating System created by a security firm i.e. Offensive Security. The OS was previously called as Backtrack & is rewritten in Debian (Earlier was in Knoppix).

The official statement says “Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking Linux Distribution”. They mean that this Linux distribution is made for penetration testing with the help of various security related tools to help security experts.

If you think Kali Linux is a very unique & useful Distro, then you should know about Distro.

A Linux Distro is defined as a set of Linux kernel, a set of core utilities and applications and some default settings. So if you take any linux distro & install all the tools you need to use, then it would be as same as the Kali Linux is providing.

The only difference will be the pre-packed tools & setting that are made for a pentester not for a regular Desktop user.

Precisely, Kali Linux is not the only door to start with your hacking startup lessons.

How to Download & Install Kali Linux

If you are going to install Kali Linux, then you should first download the ISO from the official website of Kali Linux. The official Link is given as https://www.kali.org/downloads/.

How to install Kali Linux on your PC Step by Step

If your PC is a 64 bit Intel CPU, then amd64 is the right download for you. After your download is complete, you can check the SHA-256 fingerprint & compare it with the downloaded file. How to verify checksum in Linux. After you checked the ISO with the checksum, you will be confident about the integrity of ISO for installation.

Kali Linux installation and first experience

Kali Linux is a Debian based OS , the installation process of this OS is little bit complex than others. However the process is properly explained on the official website of Kali.

There are so many options which are default after installation. After the installation is complete, the screen shows this.

Kali linux first screen
Kali linux first screen
  1. A user who is new to Linux won’t know that root is the only user after installation. Another thing is that pentesting tools require super user access.
  2. Kali Linux is not a choice for daily computing (Office Work, Internet Surfing, Video Editing etc). You can”t even share your PC with someone.
  3. More of the features of Kali Linux tools are hidden in command line rather than menu. You won’t get any specific office applications or tools (Except calculator or Quick Note). All the tools available are security oriented.
  4. Kali is Debian based, but there are no specific tools there. You can install as many of them by the commands. (apt-get update ,apt-get install).
  5. Working as root is not good in many cases. There are no restriction to the user, you can do many things which really don’t want to do. There will access to all type of files & you can manipulate any of them which can result into bad experiences.

If you are going to install this on directly, then you can read this article to make a proper installation of Kali Linux in your PC.

If you like this article please do share with your friends. That’s all for now.

Deepin 15.5 Released with so many new features – Check the new Features of Deepin 15.5

After a long time , Deepin has released a new version of their Operating system for the users. The Deepin developers have taken more six months to release the new version.

As we know that there are many other Linux Distros which have some special features in them. Deepin Linux is famous for it attractive desktop for the enthusiasts. Due to this , it has created a special place in the Distros.

Deepin Linux Minimum Requirements

Minimum System Requirements

  • Intel Pentium IV 2.0GHz CPU,
  • 1GB RAM,
  • 10GB Hard Drive.

Recommended System Requirements

  1. Intel Core 2 2.0Ghz CPU,
  2. 2GB RAM,
  3. 20 GB Hard Drive.
Deepin 15.5 Review & Features
Deepin 15.5 Review & Features

Deepin 15.5 has been released with its new & improved experience for its users.

What’s New in Deepin 15.5 Review & Features

This release has come with full support for HiDPI & checks the correct resolution of HiDPI. This will show you better fonts, icons & overall interface with better graphics.

Deepin Clone & Deepin Recovery

Deepin 15.5 comes with pre-installed Deepin Clone & Deepin Recovery which helps to clone , backup & restore your disks. The Recovery feature helps you open your PC in repair mode directly from startup interface, if boot is not doing well.

Gesture & Fingerprint Support in Deepin 15.5

There are gesture & fingerprint support for the devices for authentication purpose. The new Wi-Fi Hotspot feature has been introduced with which you can turn your PC into a wireless Router & share the Internet with others.

Auto Color & temperature adjustment feature is added which save you from visual fatigue & better sleep.

Updated Applications in Deepin 15.5

There are so many applications that are updated in the Deepin OS. The list includes

  1. File Manager
  2. Image Viewer
  3. Screenshot
  4. Screen Recorder
  5. Terminal
  6. Movie, etc.

Some small changes are made to the installer, dock, control center, launcher, etc.

Download Deepin 15.5

Download your Favorite new version of Deepin 15.5 from the link given. It available only in 64 bit version.

Hello friends a good news for my fellow linux users. A new linux distro has come in the market. Deepin development team has released a new version of deepin i.e. deepin 15.4 .deepin 15.4 is powered by kernel 4.9.8 , improvement in installer & many more. You can read some more from below.

Deepin 15.4 Released – Update Deepin 15.3 to 15.4

The latest version of deepin has been released by the development team. The deepin 15.4 succeed deepin 15.3. deepin 15.4 was quite popular because of this looks & features when released in September 2015.

Like the most linux distro, this distro is also developed by chinese community. The main features of 15.4 is elegant looks & kernel 4.9.8.

This website is mainly dedicated to the linux distro. You can check some articles regarding linux. The following list can be seen by you.

Also Read : How To Install Multiple Boot OS On One USB

Features of deepin OS 15.4

Control Center : The desktop & control center can be seen with a blur & transparent view with the frequently used icons.

Kernel 4.9.8 : The use of kernel 4.9.8 provides better hardware support for new devices. The support of new kernel powers the OS to support more devices & platforms.

deepin 15.4
deepin 15.4

Installer Interface :- The installer is now powered by full screen interface, fuzzy background, and QR code to make it more easy to use.

Window Manager and Gestures : Support for multi-gesture & multiple wallpaper for different work spaces.

Hot Corner and WPS improvements : The interaction experience includes new desktop corner. MT Extra and weddings symbol are integrated again with the WPS. The hint popup are also removed as before.

Deepin 15.4 Download

So if you want to install the deepin 15.4 after reading this then you can jump to this link.

Deepin 15.4 Torrent

Download Torrent for Deepin 15.4 from here.

Deepin 15.4 wallpaper

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Also Read : How to hack Android phone using Kali Linux or Ubuntu

That’s it for now. If you like the article please give your feedback & ask your doubts to hack Android phone. If you like the information please like our Facebook Page or Subscribe us for our Daily Updates in your Inbox. Thank You.

Best Free Hacking Apps for Android Users in 2020 without Root – Hacker’s Phone APK

Best Free Android Hacking Apps |2019 Edition APK | Hacker's phone APK
Best Free Android Hacking Apps Hacker’s phone APK

Since Android has become popular with common people. The number of apps for Android has also increased. Here we are going to list the top android hacking tools. These apps will be helpful for you if you are a tech geek, system admin or a hacker. The list includes many apps which you may knew before.

Top 15 Android hacking tools – Hacking apps for android

The list is made after the reviews of many people who are working in the IT industry & used these apps have helped in their work. You can also download these android hacking tools from the links given by us.

These android hacking tools must be used for educational purpose, please don’t use them for any wrong purpose. We do not support any type of destructive or unethical activity.

USB Cleaver Download Link

This app is a very powerful hacking tool that can steal the sensitive information of a Windows PC. The PC must be connected with phone. This app can steal browser passwords, Wi-Fi password, network information, etc.

Fing Hacking App Download

This app is basically a network scanner that is made for security professional & hackers. It provides the information of all the devices connected to network. It also map devices & locate security risks , intruders that makes it perfect for a system admin.

Also Read : How to Make a Tiny Linux PC in a Mouse

Kali Linux NetHunter App Download 

Kali Linux NetHunter is a open source pen testing tool platform for Android users. The app is specially designed for Nexus & One Plus devices. It supports Wireless 802.11 frame injection, HID keyboard, 1-click MANA Evil Access Point setups, BadUSB MITM attacks. etc.

WiFi Kill Android App Download

This app can disable a device from Internet access. Actually it blocks the packet across the device. As the app has a simple interface any user can use it ,if he does not have a good tech knowledge.

SSHDroid Hacking Android App Download 

SSHDroid is an app developed for SSH server implementation. It allows you to connect your PC & android device & run commands through it. The commands like ‘terminal’ and ‘adb shell’ can be executed. It provides you security while you are on a remote connection.

Shared-key authentication, WiFi autostart whitelist, extended notification control are some features that are used in it.

Nmap Hacking App Download

Nmap is a network scanner app that is very popular in desktop. Now the app is also available in Android platform. This app is very useful for the newbie hackers. It can be used in rooted as well as non-rooted device.

APKInspector Hacking App Download

APKInspector is a reverse engineering app that is very useful for developers. With this app you get the source coe of any app & edit the app as per your needs. You can also check the graphical features of this app.

DroidBox Hacking App Download

DroidBox provides a detail analysis of an app. This app can reveal many sensitive information from a phone like phone call & SMS. You can analyze the behavior of an app using this.

Droidsheep Hacking App Download

This app is toy for wi-fi networks. This app can hijack the sessions of a device over a network. It acts as a router in a network & fetch the active sessions. You can sniff Facebook & other social network accounts using this.

Shark App For Root Download

This app is quite useful for hackers. It can snip traffic & works on 3G or wi-fi network. You can use tcpdump command in this.

FaceNiff APK Download

This app is basically a cookie stealer which can hijack a session & get you the access of a social network account. This tool is developed by Bartosz Ponurkiewicz.

cSploit APK Download

It is a IT security toolkit for android. It can find vulnerability , exploit & install backdoors in a device.

zANTI APK

This a toolkit for android hacking that contains many software inside a single package. This app consists of many pen testing tools for android. It can detect multiple malicious codes inside a code. This app provides a hacking environment in a phone like BackTrack OS.

Hackode App Download

This app is one of the most favorite app of a hacker or IT admins. The in functions of this app are Google hacking, SQL Injection, MySQL Server, Whois, Scanning, DNS lookup, IP, MX Records, DNS Dif, Security RSS Feed, Exploits.

It is a very good app for beginners to start with.

Download AndroRAT

AndroRAT stands for Android Remote Administrative Tools. With this app you connect to a remote device & get information from it. It can start a server service with a call or SMS.

The app can track all the activities of an android device like Phone call, SMS, Camera pictures & browsing history.

So the list for android hacking tools is complete. These hacking apps for android are used by system admin & IT experts for better administration in their work. You can install these hacking apps for android in your device & learn for your hacking career.

If you like the article please write a comment for us. You can also like our Facebook page or Subscribe for daily updates made by us. Thank You.

Five Linux Distributions that can be installed on Raspberry Pi – How to install Linux on Raspberry Pi

Many of you may have heard about raspberry Pi. If you haven’t we are going to tell you something about it. Also about the OS that you can install on Raspberry Pi alternatives.

What is Raspberry Pi – Raspberry Pi Buy

Raspberry Pi is a series of single board computers that are developed by Raspberry Pi Foundation in United Kingdom. The single chip computer is small in size & able to work with any architecture. The main purpose for the development of this Computer is for teaching basics of Computer. It can also be used in Robots.

How to install Linux on Raspberry Pi – Raspberry Pi Price

The primary models of this Computer was $5. But since the newer version have come, the price has increased to 35$. Raspberry Pi 3 has been equipped with Bluetooth, Wi-Fi & USB port for more I/O features in it.

According to Raspberry Pi Foundation, over 15 million Rasberry pi computers are sold till date. It has become the bestselling computer for the company.

Raspberry Pi
Raspberry Pi

Five alternatives of Linux for Raspberry Pi

So here we are going to tell you about Five Linux Distributions that can be installed in Raspberry Pi. While all the distribution are based on Linux. Most of the people working on it are using Rasbian OS for it.

Also Read :- Rock64 Mini vs Raspberry Pi 3

Still five alternatives are given here for you.

Fedora Raspberry Pi

Yes, if you are a Fedora User, then you can install Fedora in Rasberry Pi. Two options are available in it. use first one called ARM image which is used in 32 -bit & 64-bit both. This version is best for Raspberry Pi 2. You can also try PI Pidora which is mixture of Fedora.

Gentoo Raspberry Pi

Getoo uses a kernel image. This kernel image is provided by the raspberry Pi foundation. Gentoo is more compatible in compiling a code than to install it via Gentoo distro with an installer. Gentoo needs more time in configuration before use.

ROKOS Raspberry Pi

ROKOS is a quite different OS. It is based on Bitcoin manipulation. It also works with Pi-alikes , PINE64+ and the Banana Pi PRO. You can convert your Rasberry into a cryptocurrency client.

SolydX RPI Raspberry Pi

This is Debian based Linux that works with Xfce desktop. It is compatible with older versions of Raspberry Pi. At least 4 GB storage is required for its installation.

Arch Linux Raspberry Pi

Arch Linux was quite popular with Rasberry Pi 2. It is packaged with NOOBS installer. Many users have given good reviews for it & suggested to try it.

That’s it for now. If you like our post please comment & share it with your friends. Like us on Facebook or subscribe us to get all the daily updates from us. Thank You.

Things to do after installing Kali Linux 2017.2 – Getting Started with Kali Linux installation

5 things to do after installing kali linux
5 things to do after installing kali linux

Hello my Hacker friends , I have written so many articles for you which provide you a basic tutorial base for using Linux. Many of you may have faced problems in installing Kali Linux.

Getting Started with Kali Linux – What to do After installing Kali Linux

And this happens with us, the method to install Kali Linux is not as easy as compared to Windows or any other Linux Distro. Now after all these obstacles , I hope you have installed Kali Linux on your PC.

After you have installed your favourite Kali Linux on your PC , there are some things that you should do. I have written them one by one that will help you to use this OS more efficiency.

5 Things to do after Install Kali Linux  Rolling

Fix Default Repository

The first task after installation is to fix the default repository. Type the command in the terminal & press Enter.

leafpad /etc/apt/sources.list

This command will open a file , add the lines written below in the file.

## Regular repositories deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib deb

http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free ## Source

repositories deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali main non-free contrib deb-src

http://security.kali.org/kali-security kali/updates main contrib non-free

fix-default-repository

After the file is updated you can enter this command in your terminal.

apt-get update

Also Read :-  How to Install your own Open VPN Server in Kali linux

Fix The Device Not Managed Error

There may be error “Device not Managed Error”, write the command in your terminal

leafpad /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf

File will be opened in your screen, replace false with true.

Install the software center

Software center is a very useful utility that helps you to install new software in your PC. Type the command below in the terminal.

apt-get install software-center
This will download the software center & the next command will install the software center in your PC.

install-software-center

Replace Iceweasel with Firefox in Kali Linux

Firefox browser is a very popular browser which let you use the Internet. If you are going to install it in Kali Linux then you have to use these commands.

apt-get remove iceweasel

After this you will be able to install Firefox in your PC.

echo -e “ndeb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/ubuntuzilla/mozilla/apt all main”

| tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list > /dev/null apt-key adv –recv-keys –keyserver

keyserver.ubuntu.com C1289A29 apt-get update apt-get install firefox-mozilla-build

Now you have installed  Firefox successfully in your PC

Install flash in Kali Linux

Flash is used to watch videos in your Browser. There are the commands which will let you install flash in your PC.

apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree update-flashplugin-nonfree –install

Now flash is installed in your PC.

Update, Upgrade, Dist-Upgrade

Withe this command you can clean , update & upgrade your Kali Linux Distro.

apt-get clean && apt-get update && apt-get upgrade -y && apt-get dist-upgrade -y

Enable sound on Boot

Use this command to enable the sound while system boots.

apt-get install alsa-utils -y

Installing Java in Kali

Download Java from the official website of java & save the file in the download folder.

Now run the following command

  1. tar -zxvf jre*.tar.gz
  2. mv jre* /opt
  3. cd /opt/jre*

Install and register binaries Of Java

The downloaded version will be registered & switches to be default.

update-alternatives –install /usr/bin/java java /opt/jre*/bin/java 1

update-alternatives –install /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/libjavaplugin.s­o mozilla-

javaplugin.so /opt/jre*/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so 1

update-alternatives –set java /opt/jre*/bin/java

update-alternatives –set javac /opt/jre*/bin/javac

update-alternatives –set mozilla-javaplugin.so /opt/jre*/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so

 Install HTOP and NetHogs

HTOP shows running processes & memory used. NetHogs shows applications traffic per interface.It can be installed by the command given.

apt-get install htop nethogs -y

The commands to use them are

  • htop
  • nethogs eth0
  • nethogs wlan0

Update the Existing Kali Linux to the Latest Version

If you are already a Kali Linux User and you want to update your version with the latest one.

Below are the commands for updating your old Kali version. 1. apt update 2. apt dist-upgrade 3. reboot

So if you find this article useful then please provide a comment on how it helped you. You can also like us on Facebook or Subscribe us for more Updates using your E-mail Id. Thank You.

How to Install & configure your own OpenVPN Server in Kali linux or Debian

Open VPN Server in Kali linux
Open VPN Server in Kali linux

How to configure open vpn server ( openvpn) in Kali Linux or Debian using terminal commands

This article for all my hacker buddies using Kali linux or another linux. After reading this tutorial you will be able to install your own VPN server in your Local PC. After you finish the article you will be able to use your own open VPN server.

Install OpenVPN Server in Kali linux | Debian

I hope you all know about VPN server. But if you don’t know then you can easily learn after reading this article.

So let’s get started.

Steps to configure Open VPN Server in Kali linux

Here we will use a python script & your Kali linux OS to create a VPN server in your PC.

  • First of all, download the VPN script from the link given.
  • Now copy the zip file from Downloads folder to Desktop, after extracting the folder.
  • Open a new terminal & type command “cd Desktop”.
  • Next command “ls”
  • This command will show you the name of files you have on your desktop.
  • Now enter the command “cd openvpn-install-master”
  • Then enter command “ls”
  • Now run this command “bash openvpn-install.sh”. To run this command you need to login as a root user. If you were not login as root user then the command will not work.
  • Now this script will ask you some questions which are written below.

I will provide the answers also that I used in it.

  1. IP address: Press enter for default IP Address
  2. Which protocol do you want for OpenVPN connections?  : UDP as default
  3. What port do you want OpenVPN listening to? : 1194(Default)
  4. Which DNS do you want to use with the VPN? : Google (Press 2 & Enter)
  5. Client name: Client (Default) any name you like.

After all this some files will be downloaded in your PC.

A message will be shown on the PC. “If your server is NATed. (Ex LowEndSpirit).I need to know the External IP. If that’s not the case just ignore the case , just ignore the case & leave the next field blank. “

Now press Enter & you have finish installation.

So we are done for this.

Advantage of using this open VPN server

  • You can hide your IP in this open VPN server & stay anonymous.
  • The VPN server is free & easy to use.
  • You can install it in your PC as well as Raspberry Pi device and use it as a portable VPN server.
  • You have learned a new stuff from this.

That’s all for now if you find it useful then please like & comment your views.Like us on Facebook or subscribe us for daily updates from us. Thank You.

Download Certified Ethical Hacking Course in 2019 to make your career

Ethical Hacking Practice , Techniques Online Course (27+ Hours Course)

Ethical Hacking Practice , Techniques Online Course (27+ Hours Course)
Ethical Hacking Practice , Techniques Online Course (27+ Hours Course)

Details of Course

  1. Ethical hacking skills.
  2. Theory & Practical of Hacking
  3. The security trends in IT.
  4. Myths of Security
  5. Wi-Fi network standards and protection.
  6. About Wi-Fi threats.
  7. Detailed awareness on Windows security.
  8. The boundaries of Security.
  9. How to prevent your system from malware
  10. The secret tips on access control in Windows.
  11. The Windows Authentication.
  12. Identify Spoofing Prevention.
  13. The mechanisms of Windows authorisation.
  14. Windows security mechanisms.
  15. Encrypt Data in Windows.
  16. Wi-Fi network standards and protection.
  17. Wi-Fi network threats.
  18. How to prevent identity spoofing.

What initial Knowledge you need to learn in this course

  • Basics of IT
  • Basics of programming skills

Description of Course

Certified Ethical Hacking Course in Practice

This ethical hacking course is an advance course which is helpful for all the aspiring hackers who want to go forward in Ethical hacking as a career. This course is for 27+ hours of duration.

Before you begin

The hacking course which is shared here will be used for many practicals all over the world. The students who learn through this course have taken their first step towards ethical hacking and computer security. These video lectures are very useful for the network administrators, programmers, pentesters, black- and white hat hackers.

This course has been made by Certified experts (CISS, MCSE:MS, CEH, CISSP). They have created courses for a beginner to become an advance level security expert. The goal of this course is to provide high quality material to the students to prepare online and after that apply for certification exams. So we recommend this course to all aspiring hackers who are serious about the security jobs.

About the ethical hacking training

Computer Security is a very serious topic which is being taught to the experts so that they can prevent the cyber criminals to access the protected networks, view encrypted files, accounts, and even steal identities.

The course will teach you real world techniques that hackers use to protect their data and the network.

The course is equally useful to a beginner and a skilled expert. The learning resources will let you learn and sharp your knowledge about IT security, ethical hacking and penetration testing.

Warning :- After completing this course , you will be able to do many practical which can b harmful too. Please do not do any harmful activity like infiltrate networks or IT systems without permission and consent. This course is given for the prevention of harmful attacks. If you did any unethical activity, then you will be totally responsible for it.

Become CISS ( Certified IT Security Specialist) course covers 

  • Myths of Security and Hacking
  • Advance IT Security
  • Microsoft Windows Threats and WiFi Weaknesses
  • Latest Black-Hat Threats and Trends
  • Designing More Secure Networks
  • Encrypted Data, Identify Spoofing, and Windows Authorization
  • IT Security Academy Exam Preparation

Boost Network Security and Identify Weaknesses

The  certified hackers identify various threats which are made to secure the traitors. This is done by understanding how a cyber criminal thinks to find vulnerabilities in a network.

Contents and Overview

This course will help a student to seek a good career in IT security / Ethical Hacking, as well as programmers and technology enthusiasts who want to develop hacking and prevention skills. However basic undertanding of IT feild is needed but not as such necessary.

After 239 lectures and spending 27 hours , you will be able to understand all the basics and advance concepts of hacking in few days.Who this course is for:

  • Hacking enthusiasts
  • Ethical Hackers
  • Future IT Sec Professionals
  • IT Students
  • Programmers
  • IT enthusiasts

How to Download Ethical Hacking Practice , Techniques Online Course (27+ Hours Course)

  1. Click on download Link below.
  2. Complete the captcha.
  3. Wait for 10 seconds & your download will start.
  4. Complete the course & excel in your career.