Linux

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 4

Hello friends, last part was written for the directory commands, there was one networking command too. In this article we are going to tell you about linux find command which will help you to find a file or directory in the computer.

Linux Find Command , Grep Find Exec

There are thousands of files which are used in the Linux file system. You can’t use ls-l command to see & find a single file from it. You can use linux find command some more commands that will help you to find a file from the disk.

Find a file in a directory

Linux find command is used to find a file in a directory. It is a recursive command which will search every file & folder to search for the filename we have given. Suppose we are going to find a file named hack. Then the command will be

find -name hack

This filter -name will tell the command to find the files whose name is hack. It will then return the path of all the directories where the file named hack is present. If we want to search in a specific directory then you can use the command like this.

find /Directory -name file-name

The above command will search all the directories & sub- directories in the specified directory for the name of file given. Output will show the path of all directory which contains that file.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 2

Find binary files in the path

Binary files can be found by using which command. This command will let us finding binary files in the path given. You don’t know what a binary file is, a binary file is a file which is like .exe file in windows OS. It is programs in Linux. These files are stored in bin directory (remember the file structure of linux).

linux find command
linux find command

Use these commands in the given sequence as follows

echo $path

which ls

First command will give you the path variable. Second command will search for binaries , it will return a path to the binary file.

which binaryfilename

This will show you the path where the file is stored.

Finding a file in any directory

Whereis is a command used to find a file of any type in every directory. This will show you multiple path of the file of specified name in output. It also shows the manual files path in the output.

whereis filename

This command will display all the paths in the disk where the given file name is found including the man pages

Find a file using database of file system

This task is done by a special command called Locate. Now if you want to search a file in the disk, then it will take some time, when which or Whereis command is used. Locate command will search the filename in the file system. A file system is log where the database of all the files are stored in the table. When the Locate command will search a file by its name it will check the filesystem to see whether file is found or not. It can’t find a file which is created in few hours. As the new file details are updated in the filesystem in the night hours when the system is on rest.

locate filename

This is the syntax of the command to be used. The output of the command will show multiple paths of the file. The file can be in the multiple location of disk. There can be multiple directories where file of same name exists.

This article was based in search commands that will let you find any file from the terminal. You will use these commands in linux when we will be installing servers in the computer. Remember all these commands for being an advance user.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 3

If you have any question regarding this please tell us in the comment box. Like our Facebook page for more updates. Thank You.

Rock64 Mini PC is the new choice for Raspberry Pi Users – Rock64 Mini vs Raspberry Pi 3

ROCK64 is a credit card size 4K60P HDR10 Media Board Computer powered by Rockchip RK3328 Quad-Core ARM Cortex A53 64-Bit Processor and support . Raspberry Pi is a very cool concept of computing in the modern world. You can measure the popularity of this concept that many other companies are trying to make products that can compete with Raspberry Pi. Here we are going to provide you the details of newly launched Rock64 mini.

What is Rock64 Mini – Rock64 Mini or Raspberry Pi

Rock64 is a uni-chip computer board. The price of this board is lower than Raspberry Pi. The configuration of this computer board are 4K playback @ 60Hz. It has a USB 3.0 & faster gigabit Ethernet. There is no Wi-fi or Bluetooth in it. It has a RK3328 quad-core Cortex A53 processor and Mali-450MP4 GPU.

All of you may know that Raspberry is a small palm size computer that can help you work as you do in a Desktop or a Laptop. Recently a developer used a Raspberry Pi 3 as a PC for his work. The main reason to do this was that he lost his Mac-book Pro.
If you want more information about Raspberry Pi then you can check this article for more information.  What is Raspberry Pi.

PINE64 Releases Rock64 Mini PC

Rock64 is a product of Pine64. A new option for buying a Raspberry Pi . With this board , you can run 4K videos in just $25 that is cheaper to a Pi 3. It has also support for HDR10 using HDMI 2.0.

Ports & connectivity in Rock64

Rock 64 has a eMMC  module socket , Pi-2 Bus , Pi-P5+ Bus & a USB 3.0 port , two USB 2.0 Post & a microSD card slot. Rock64 has no wireless connectivity, as there is no 802.11n Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. The gigabit Ethernet in Rock64 is faster than Raspberry Pi 3’s 10/100 Ethernet. The single board PC has RK3328 quad-core Cortex A53 & Mali-450MP4 GPU. The dimensions of Rock64 are 85×56 mm.

Rock64 Mini Computer
Rock64 Mini Computer

Price of Rock64 Mini Computer

The price of base version of Rock64 is $24.95 which has 1 GB RAM. The 2 GB version for the same product is costing $34.95. There is one more variant for the same board i.e. $44.95.

Rock64 mini computer’s base version is priced at $24.95 with 1GB RAM. You can also get the 2GB version for $34.95 and the 4GB version for $44.95.

Rock64 Configuration 
CPU Quad-Core Cortex-A53, up to 1.5GHz
GPU Mali-450MP2, Support OpenGL ES1.1/2.0
Memory  32bit DDR3-1866/DDR3L-1866/LPDDR3-1866/DDR4-2133
 Support eMMC 4.51, SDCard, SPI Flash
Multi-Media  4K VP9 and 4K 10bits H265/H264 video decode, up to 60fps
 1080P other video decoders (VC-1, MPEG-1/2/4, VP8)
 1080P video encoder for H.264 and H.265
 Video post processor: de-interlace, de-noise, enhancement for edge/detail/color
 Support HDR10, HLG HDR, Support conversion between SDR and HDR
Display HDMI 2.0a for 4K@60Hz with HDCP 1.4/2.2
 Support conversion between Rec.2020 and Rec.709
Security  ARM TrustZone (TEE), Secure Video Path, Cipher Engine, Secure boot
Connectivity  I2C/UART/SPI/SDIO3.0/USB2.0/USB3.0
 8 channels I2S/PDM interface, supports 8 channels Mic array
Embedded CVBS、HDMI、Ethernet MAC and PHY、S/PDIF、Audio DAC
TS in/CSA2.0 ,support DTV function
Package BGA316 14X14, 0.65mm pitch

Hope you like the information. if you are going to buy this soon , then please provide your comments about your experience.

From Raspberry Pi users, I just like to ask. Would you want to replace this with your Raspberry Pi.

If you find the information useful , then please write a comment for Feedback or suggestions. Follow us on Social Platforms to stay connected with us. Thank You.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 2

basic linux commands list pdf for file and directory manipulations & navigation & Interview Questions 

In the previous part I gave a little basic for using linux file commands. This part will be on creating & working on directories. After reading & practising these command you will b able to work with files & directories. This will help you when you will be executing scripts.

Learn Linux File commands

Learn every variation of these basic linux file commands. You be exploring the files directories in some days. You should be mastered in using these file commands

Cd Command

This command was discussed earlier. Change directory is used in many variations.In the previous article we used the cd command as cd..Another variation is cd/ by which you can go to root directory, cd~ is used for moving in home directory.

Cd command is also used to move a directory from one location to other. You can use cd command to move to any directory by writing the location specifically. For ex. cd/abc/def/new-folder. Make sure Linux is a case sensitive OS , your spelling must be correct & exact letters are used. If any letter is written wrong then error message will be displayed.

One more way to use cd command is cd hackbook. Now as we are new-folder & hackbook is sub-directory in it then without writing the whole path again just write the name of subdirectory in it.

Listing command

List command will tell you all the contents that are inside a directory. This command can be used as ls. It will show you all the contents that are inside the current directory.

Also Read : Top Books to learn hacking in 2019

This ls command can be used with two switches. These switches are -a & -l. The command ls-a will show all the content inside the directory with all the hidden files too. Next ls-l , this -l will provide all the details of file  like permissions, size , group & date of creation.

Both can be used at same time also. Like this ls-la , this will show the details of hidden files also. We will be knowing about the permissions in the next article.

linux file commands
linux file commands

Touch Command

Command to create a new file in Linux. It is used as touch newfile. We can check the details of this new file by using the command ls-la. After this command a long list will be displayed

Make new directory

To make a new directory use mkdir command. write mkdir directory name & press enter. You directory will be created in the current directory.

Use Help to know more about commands

To get the manual for using the commands in linux. Man is the command that can help you to know about the commands. You can use the man command to know for any command. For example man cd. THis will provide you the way by which this command can be used by someone.

One more way to use manual is to use -h or –help in any command . This will also work as same as the man command works. For ex cd–help. It will provide all  ways to use this cd command.

For now this is over. I hope you will practice all these commands nicely . Remember the commands, this will be used very soon.

Also Read : Learn basics of Linux hacking part 1

Please give us feedback for this series. Write comments in the comments section to let me know. Like our Facebook for more updates.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 3

Hi, friends, we are back with the third part of Linux basics. This part will be on the management of files & directories in the Linux. Here are some linux directory commands for you.

Linux Directory Commands for Managing Directories

In the previous part we started with some Linux file commands. These commands work in Linux for the creation of directories & files. If you are reading this article before reading the previous one, then you must read all the previous one so that you can learn the basic part first.

As in the last part we tried creating some files & directories in the desired location in the disk. Now we will be learning Linux directory commands that will be helping you in file management. So without wasting any time start with copy command.

Also ReadBasics of Linux for the purpose of Ethical hacking

Copy Command

Using Cp command you ca copy a file from one location to other. This can be done by a given syntax. You can use Cp command in the syntax given at last. You can use Cp command in two variations.

Cp Filename with Source Destination of file 

Cp filename Destination of file

In the first line, we used Cp command by providing filename, source of file & destination of file.

In the next line no destination is given as the file is in the current directory.

This command creates one copy in the destination & the file in source directory remains unchanged.

Moving Files

There is no command to rename a file, Mv command is used by the user to move files as well as rename them.

mv /root/file-name

This command will move the file in root folder & file will be deleted from the previous location.

One more use of this command is to rename the files. This can be done by putting original name & new name in it. As given below.

mv filename newname

In the command I have not used any directory name. This is because we have moved the file filename from the current directory to the current directory. But now the name is changed to newname. Now the file filename is deleted.

linux directory commands
linux directory commands

Cat command

This command is used to view the contents of a file. Cat is short form of concatenate. Concatenate means to join two things together. What you have to do it use ls-l command to list all the files of the current directory. Now you can use cat command followed by the filename.

cat filename.

This command will show file content on the screen very fast until it reaches end of file. You can scroll to see the contents of the file.

More Command

There are two command that works like cat command but open the file as per the screen size. It will show the next line of file when you press the key. When you will press enter then the next line of the file will be shown. If you press spacebar then it will scroll one page through the screen.

more filename

Less command

This is same as more command but there are less functions in this command. The search capability of less command is more than more command.

less filename

After this command the file will be shown to you on the screen. Now you can search any string in the file by using /string-name in the file. This feature will let you prefer less command over more command.

Ifconfig Command (Networking Command)

This is the first networking command we are discussing here. This will display the details of your network & computer.

ifconfig.

After this command will be entered. This will show you the details like IP address, netmask, broadcast address, interfaces, MAC address of my interface, etc.

Also ReadBasics of Linux for the purpose of Ethical hacking Part 2

That’s all for the Linux directory commands. In the next part we will be discussing about the networking command.

If you have any questions for these commands, please let me know. Like our Facebook Page for more information. Thank you.

What is Ethical Hacking Full Online Course Explained Step by Step

What is ethical hacking full explained ?.

This article is dedicated to those who wants to know about the ethical hacking. There are many misconceptions related to hacking. I will try to remove them & provide you a pathway for the beginners so that you will be able to learn the hacking techniques & news related to it.

Ethical Hacking Online Course

Hacking is one of the misunderstood terms in the technical world. Most of us think that hacking is done by bad guys to steal someones data & harm them in the way they could. As the word hacking comes to our mind, we thought about the bank frauds & online thefts, but this is one face of hacking. This type of hacking comes under the black hat hacking. The other one is ethical hacking which we are going to discuss now. Read the whole article to know more.

Types of Hacking Practices –  Type of Computer Hack 

Hacking is not limited to the illegal things which most of the movies has told us. There are three types pf hacking i.e. black hat hacking , grey hat hacking & white hat hacking.

ethical hacking
ethical hacking]

How many Type of Hackers exists in Network Security

  1. Black hat hacking :- These type of hackers are of criminal nature. These hackers use their skills to harm people for their personal benefit. This type of hacking practices are not recommended to anyone. Ultimately these people are called cyber criminals. If they are caught doing so, they are punished as per the law.
  2. Grey hat hacking :- Grey hat hackers are those type of hackers who sometimes do some illegal activities just like black hat hackers but they do not harm others . They just do these activities for fun & learning purpose.
  3. White hat hacking :- White hat hackers breach the network security in order to check the vulnerability of the networks. These type of testing is known as penetration testing.These people are hired in the companies to secure the network from the illegal activities.

Learn ethical hacking Free step by step 

This little information abut the world of hacking is enough for the beginners. If you want to learn ethical hacking , we are going to tell you some of the online ways to learn ethical hacking. We are here to provide some names of the websites which will help you learn the basics of ethical hacking.

Best Websites To Learn Ethical Hacking

  1. HACKADAY :- This is one of the most popular website that provides tutorials. It has a youtube channel for the same, which provides many hacks for hardware & software.It provides learning material for networking , hardware , signals etc.
  2. EVILZONE FORUM :- This is a discussion forum where you need to register & experts will provide you the advice for the doubts you have about hacking.
  3. HackThisSite (HTS) :- HTS is a website which provides challenge to the user which helps him/her to check their abilities . It updates the user with the latest news about hacking & technology.
  4. Break the security : – The website provides various news about technology. In addition it provides many other certification to the users.
  5. EC- Council CEH Ethical Hacking Course :-  The full form for the organisation is The International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants. Various certifications are provided by them. It is a professional certification body especially in hacking courses.
  6. Cybrary :- With the help of visual education , this website can helps you to become a top professional hacker.

These websites are seas of knowledge if you are ready to go for the information. If you really want to be a professional ethical hacker you can go for any of them. If you have any question related to any hacking terms , then you can ask me in the comment box that will help you to know more about it. Thank you.

Linux vs Windows vs Mac Performance , Gaming Difference

You must have heard of Linux OS. After reading this article you will know everything about it. This will cover all the aspects of Linux operating system.

About Linux – History of Linux / Linux History Timeline

Linux is an unix based operating system. It was developed by Linus Torvalds. It is an open source operating system   which means it is not owned by anyone or any organisation. It is a very powerful operating system for any user who is searching an alternative to windows OS. Linux was developed in 1991. It was the period of hardware upgrade. At that time DOS & Mac were the only operating system for the computers. As DOS was economical for the PC users while Mac was lot more expensive than DOS. In same decade , Linus Torvalds who was studying in the Helsinki university created a new core operating system. After the development was completed , it was given away by him for free.

Linux Academy Linux Architecture Linux Kernel

Now linux is one of the mostly used operating system in the IT sector for the security reasons. It is the favorite OS for the servers as it can work for years without any reboot or maintenance.

Reasons of linux for becoming so popular

There are various reasons why linux has become the most popular operating system in the IT sector businesses. We are writing some of those features which will make you fall in love with linux OS.

  • The first most interesting part of linux is that nobody owns it’s source code. The source code is also given free with this operating system. The source code can be modified by the user if the user wants to customize the Linux core according to his needs. There are no complex license agreements as in the case of windows or Mac.
  • There is no cost for this operating system. The core of linux comes with general public license or GNU. It is a very robust OS used in very big organisations. It can handle any number of users irrelevant of their resource usage. It is also very helpful in networking applications. Sometimes when a network computer or a server having very low disk space , linux handles the users request very efficiently.
  • Linux is a very hardware independent OS which can work in any type of hardware. Because of this portability it runs on variety of machines like PCs, Macs, mainframes, supercomputers, some cell phones and industrial robots. It also works in dual boot like windows & linux OR Linux & Mac. A very popular Linux operating in laptop computer is Ubuntu.
  • As we are in the threatening world of Viruses, malware attacks & other malicious activities. Linux is safe from all types of such attacks. This is because the platform is very less & the people who are using this OS are mostly ethical users of It industry.
  • As we told you above that the linux is open source , that is why the application software which are used in this platform are also freeware to the linux users.

Limitations Of Linux

As anything in this world is not perfect. There are some disadvantages of the OS. We are going to describe them to you so that you can be well informed about the operating system.

Disadvantages of Linux OS

  • The programs that were used in windows will be longer useful for linux. The application of windows software are of .exe format while Linux does not support .exe. Linux supports .gz, .tgz ,.ps & .txt. But now from some previous years windows emulator has been developed by the companies to fill the gap between windows & Linux OS.
  • There are very less peripherals like printer, scanner etc which are compatible with linux OS. However there are some hardware available which are used with linux OS. But the number of such hardware is very less.For example HP has provided a variety of hardware that is compatible with linux platform.
  • If any windows user who has just switched to the linux platform , he must be too much dependent on the GUI. However there is much better GUI in Linux as compared to the windows , but there are variety of functions that are done by commands in linux, their function is much better than the graphical one.

Linux vs Windows – Difference between Linux and Windows Operating System

  1. Linux kernel & GNU utilities are free to use. There is no money required to use linux OS. While if you want to use a windows operating system than you have to pay around $99 or more to use the Windows operating system.
  2. If any person who wants to work in linux based environment than he must need the deeper understanding with the linux working environment while if we talk about windows, then it is the easiest OS to use because of its GUI & user friendly features.If a windows user has to switch directly to Linux Os then he must learn many other things in order to work in the linux environment.
  3. Linux is way too reliable in terms of usage & real time processing. In the years of improvement windows has become more reliable than ever but still the level of reliability is much higher in linux as compared to the windows OS.
  4. Software Availability :- If you the check the variety of software that windows support is very high as compared to the linux. There are very less software which are supported in linux based OS while in case of windows , windows has the highest number of applications that support it’s platform.
  5. Cost of software :- The software that are available for linux is free while the softwares that are used in windows are not free & need money to purchase them.
  6. Security : The level of security is much higher in Linux to windows. The source code of the linux is available to the users. This enables the user to check & analyze the attack in the system. The vulnerability of Linux OS is less than Windows OS.
  7. Applications :- The application of linux OS is mostly scientfic & organisational. Linux is used in Servers , businesses, NASA. It can work with old hardware as well. Windows are used in home, gaming & entertainment. The software need to be upgraded regularly & the OS do not work in older hardwares.

Also Read : How to remove virus without Anti-virus

Linux vs Macintosh – Mac Vs Linux For Programming

Mac PC runs on OSX. Mac is a product of Apple Inc. There are aspects on which we will compare both OS in the many aspects.

Mac OS vs Linux Differences

  1. Flexibility :- If we use a OSX after using linux then we will see that there is not much independence for a user to do anything. For example if you want o change the desktop in a Mac PC then then you have to download Theme pack which will let you do this. In the case of linux this can be done in two or three clicks.Even linux can let you change the taskbar appearance by installing a different desktop manager.
  2. Open Source :- Apple took the BSD kernel to develop its own kernel known as darwin kernel. After that it was licensed under apple public source which is registered under Free Software Foundation. This Darwin kernel is still locked with Apple. Linux kernel is an open source to every user. Once Apple & open source has worked together to create OpenDarwin Kernel which is a hybrid of Linux & Mac OS.
  3. Command Line : OSX users don’t have much knowledge or need to work with command line. But every techy knows that the importance of command line is more when you need admin acess to the PC. In other words to have an administrative acess to a Mac PC, there are not enough commands in OSX.
  4. Hardware compatibility : In a PC who does not have much advance hardware in it, then OSX will not work better in that. But if we run a linux OS in it, the same PC will work better in terms of performance. Performance of OSX is very much dependant on hardware. Linux is not the same like Mac.
  5. Security : In terms of security , I witnessed a competition in which there were three platforms i.e. windows, linux & Mac. While both windows & linux were hacked & linux was not.The tools for the security are more advanced in linux as compared to Mac or Windows. Mac is also a secure OS but the level of securty that linux has can’t be compared.
  6. Portable:- Linux can be run on any machine unless its size or old hardware. Mac is not as portable in every computer. Linux data can be placed in either 64 bit or 32 bit. While in the Mac computer the files have restricted support in same architecture.
  7. Cost : The cost of using a Mac Machine is very higher. Th cheapest Mac I know is $ 1000. While linux can run on any old machine too. The cost of using the basic features of linux can be made by just an old computer & the Installation CD of Linux. While If you will use an old machine for running Mac OS you will suffer very slow response in Mac.

Linux OS
Linux OS

Now you know the various aspects of linux with other operating system. Linux is a freeware OS. Basically it is a kernel. Linux distributions take this kernel & combine with other software packages in order to provide different Linux distribution. If you will take the kernel & use it without any distribution than it will consume a lot of time in doing this.

You can use any of these Distribution in order to work in a linux environment.

Ubuntu Philosophy

Ubuntu is a very popular linux which is based on debian repositories. It works on GNOME 2 & Unity desktop environment.It updates Long term support(LTS) after every two years. In future there will be Ubuntu running on smartphones & tablet.

Ubuntu Philosophy
Ubuntu Philosophy

Linux Mint

Mint is based on Ubuntu Linux. Both ubuntu & mint uses same software repositories. Linuxmint is an loveable alternative to Ubuntu as it contains all the codecs & proprietary software which are not included in Ubuntu. It uses a traditional desktop called cinnamon desktop. It won’t let critical software updates which declared it as an insecure OS.

Linux Mint
Linux Mint

Debian Wheezy OS

It composed of open source software.The project was started in 1993. From the last 24 years it is still releasing newer versions. They are releasing newer versions very slowly as compared to others. This long time of work make this distribution more secure than others. Their main aim is to provide an secure OS with more user-friendly features.

debian
debian wheezy OS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

It is a commercial linux distribution based on fedora linux. Now the latest version are coming with collaboration with centOS. All the newer versions will be made by CentOS & Red hat. Officially CentOS is a part of red hat now.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux

OpenSuse Linux Tumbleweed

OpenSuse is a bleeding edge version of linux. In 2003 Novell purchased the OpenSuse. Once Opensuse was the best Linux in terms of user friendly feature, now ubuntu has taken the crown from it.

Open Suse
Open Suse

Kali Linux – Hackers Paradise

Kali Linux is debian based OS designed specifically for forensics & Penetration testing.It  is developed & maintained by an organisation called Offensive Security Ltd.It consists of more than 300 penetration testing tools.

Kali linux
Kali linux

Arch Linux Beginners Guide

It is based on KISS (keep it simple , stupid) principle.It is designed for computers that are of i686 and x86-64 architectures.It is mostly works under binary packages.

Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01
Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01

Parrot linux / Parrot Linux 3.6 Parrot AIR

This is also a debian based Os. It is designed for specific tasks such as Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation, Forensics and Anonymous Web Browsing. It is made by Frozen Team.The latest version of parrot linux is Parrot 3.4.1 named as CyberFrigate.

Parrot Linux
Parrot Linux

Also Read : Learn Ethical Hacking Online

These are some of the popular linux distribution which are used by me personally. If you are trying to select any of them for the learning you can download any of them from their official websites.

If you like the information provided by us, please tell us in the comment box. We are waiting for your feedback. Thank You.You can also like us on Facebook or Subscribe us for more Updates using your E-mail Id. Thank You.

Manjaro GNOME OS 17.1.12 Update & Screenshots -Manjaro KDE , GNOME , Architect

Download Manjaro mate, Manjaro xfce vs kde manjaro gnome & read Manjaro linux review and system requirements 

After the September release of Manjaro Linux 17.1.12, the developers of Manjaro have released the new updated Manjaro Linux 17.1.12. They released on the last day of 2018. So in 2018, you can start with new release by Manjaro.

The new Manjaro desktop oriented operating system was released by the Manjaro with a New year wish to all. The project leader i.e. Philip Muller has tried again with Xorg server v1.19.6.The other packages i.e. Firefox,Wine & GIMP. Some other updates are Manjaro Mesa-Stack, the dri/drm also changed.

Different versions of Manjaro 17.1.12

  • XFCE (it’s Manjaro’s flagship edition and it gets all the attention it deserves)

  • KDE

  • GNOME

  • Manjaro-Architect ISO

Manjaro XFCE Edition (17.1.12)

The Manjaro Xfce desktop environment is a lightweight OS which aims to provide a faster and less resource consuming machine for the user. The Xfce is based on traditional UNIX modularity and re-usability.

There are so many features which provide good functionality of a modern desktop environment. You can can your own combination to create a personal working environment. The minimal ISO is a very basic selection of additional software for everyday usage.

Direct Download

Torrent Download

Manjaro KDE Edition (17.1.12)

This flavor of Manjaro Linux is a versatile desktop environment that provides different styles of menu to access the applications. It has an excellent built-in Interface to acces its new themes and widgets, etc ,from the internet.

The user friendly and flashy KDE is a resource intensive slower to start and uses a desktop environment like Xfce.

64 Bit installation

Manjaro 64 bit installation of KDE uses about 550MB of memory.

Direct Download

Torrent Download

Manjaro GNOME Edition (17.1.12)

The GNOME desktop environment is a part of GNU project, which aims to be simple and easy and fully accessible. The default display server is Wayland. The appearance is quite unique and very customizable and a variety of extensions is available from https://extensions.gnome.org/
Like KDE it uses more resources than Xfce.

Direct Download

Torrent Download

Manjaro-Architect ISO (17.1.11)

Now you can install any of the Manjaro’s official or community maintained edition or alternatively configure freely your custom built system with our console-based net-installer Manjaro-Architect.

The packages can be downloaded during the installation in the latest versions. This supports systemd, disk encryption and a variety of filesystems, including LVM and btrfs.

How to verify our install media

You have to read the user guide of Manjaro User Guide to verify the downloaded install media. Here you can also get the gpg verification and developer signature from Manjaro.

Example:

wget https://github.com/manjaro/packages-core/raw/master/manjaro-keyring/manjaro.gpg
gpg --import manjaro.gpg
gpg --verify manjaro-xfce-17.1.12-stable-x86_64.iso.sig

Manjaro32 for 32-bit support

After Arch Linux has left the 32 bit support , Manjaro also followed their footsteps.  Besides Arch Linux 32 is still there as a community project & is also followed by Manjaro 32.

If you want more info on Manjaro, visit their official website. Write your comments , if you wanna add something here. Thank You.

Hello, Linux users!!!. Today we are going to review a fast growing linux distribution i.e. Manjaro Linux 17.0.2. This is the latest version of this distro by Manjaro Inc. If you are going to use this distros latest version then you can read our review & the features that are provided by them in the latest version.

Manjaro Linux 17.1.12 Download

The Manjaro developers have released a new version of this distro i.e. Manjaro Linux 17.1.12. This is one of the fastest growing linux distro. The release has include many package updates & security fixes.

Manjaro-xfce
Manjaro-xfce

The new version of Manjaro linux is based on Kernel 4.9. This version is featured with Plasma 5, Xorg v1.19, and Mesa Stack 17.1.3. You can download the Xfce , KDE & Gnome editions from the official website of Manjaro linux.

Features of Manjaro Linux 17.1.12

Manjaro Linux is a fast user friendly desktop oriented linux based OS. The main features of Manjaro linux are

  • An intuitive installer
  • Automatic hardware detection
  • Stable rolling publishing mode
  • Support for installing multiple kernels
  • Special Bash scripts for managing graphics cards
  • High degree of desktop configuration ability

Manjaro Linux 17.1.12 System requirements

  1. 1 GB of memory.
  2. 30 GB hard disk.
  3. 1 Ghz processor.
  4. HD graphic card & Monitor
  5. Broadband Internet connection.

Manjaro 17.0.2 system requirements
Manjaro 17.1.12 system requirements

Manjaro Linux provides Xfce Desktop in the core & a minimalist version of Net for advance users. You can also get the GNOME 3 or Cinnamon & KDE version of the community. Users can get help through Manjaro’s community forums

Philip Muller, who is the lead developer of Manjaro Linux (Arch Linux for Humans) has announced that they have made an addition to another version i.e. Manjaro Gellivara v17 series. They have also bring the fixes to the various security issues that were not present in the previous release in March.

Updates & security fixes in Manjaro 17.1.12

The latest release includes improved version of Calameres installer & better hardware detection. The other updates version are Kernel 4.9, MHWD v0.6.0, Firefox, Thunderbird, redesigned themes, Xorg v1.19, Manjaro Tools & Profiles, Mesa Stack 17.1.3.

Weaker password in v17.1.12

There was an issue for weaker password hashes which is now fixed by the team in 17.1.12. This was a big problem in the original release of Gellivara version which took three months to complete.

Manjaro’s flagship Xfce edition now comes with Xfce 4.12 desktop environment, it was one of the most focused part in the new version. KDE edition featuring Plasma 5.10 along with KDE Apps 17.1.12 (updated version).

Features that are partially updated in Manjaro Linux 17.1.12

  • Kernel 4.9 upgrade.
  • X.Org stack series upgrade to 1.19
  • Latest KDE Plasma 5, Applications, Framework and Qt
  • Package manager with graphical interface
  • Manjaro Tools and Profiles are improved

That is all for now. if you find the information useful & installed the Manjaro Linux then please write a comment to tell your personal experience. Thank You.

Top Linux Alternatives to the Windows XP users – Best alternative to windows 10 in 2018

Microsoft has announced that the support of Windows XP has ended now. That clearly says that the XP users are not going to get any security updates from now. They should soon leave the operating system to find an alternative.

As the condition has arrived that the XP users have to find something for them. There are three options with a XP users which are there.

  • Use Windows XP as you were using before , but your PC will not be secure & always vulnerable to the online attacks.
  • Upgrade Windows XP & move to Windows 7 or Windows 10 & enjoy the latest security updates.
  • Learn to use Linux & leave all the security threats behind & enjoy the PC.

Best Windows Look Alike Linux Distros for Windows Users in 2018

If you are choosing the third option , then you can start using Linux & leave the Windows environment behind. If you use your computer just for using Internet , movies & your office work , then Linux can be a very good part of you.

Linux is not just for Hackers or Security Experts but Home users too

There is a misconception that Linux is only for geeks. If you are also one of those , then you should read this post & remove your doubts in Linux usage.

Using Linux is not a rocket science or you don not need to learn many commands to start with. There are so many Linux distro that can be installed for a home user of computers. We are going to tell you some of them, which can be used by any normal user.

Top Linux Alternatives to the Windows XP users
Top Linux Alternatives to the Windows XP users

The name of Linux distro which are listed here can be easily used by someone who is just switching to Linux from Windows environment. These are very easy to use & the hardware control is quite easy with them.

Linux Mint Mate

Mint Linux is a very simple to use Operating system which comes with pre installed software. The desktop of Mint Linux is as same as Windows Desktop with desktop icons & taskbar with menu like start menu. Linux Mint works perfect with a modern hardware PC.

Download Linux Mint Mate

Linux Mint Xfce

Windows XP users generally have a low configuration machine. If your computer is a low performance machine which can’t be upgraded to Windows 7 or some newer version of Windows , then you can use Linux as the best option for you.

Linux OS can be used with Less RAM & old processor like Pentium 4. Linux Mint Xfce is a lightwight desktop which has a good performance in 256 MB of RAM.

Download Linux Mint Xfce

Lubuntu

Ubuntu is one of the most popular OS which is used in so many servers. The popularity of Ubuntu make them create a light version of the same OS. The OS can be used in the lowest configuration (if someone has a old PC). The Lubuntu is able to run on Pentium 2 PC & the OS will give you better experience in the Old PC.

Download Lubuntu

Zorin OS

There are many Windows users who miss the feel & look of the Windows, For the same purpose , many users switch back to windows. Zorin OS has been created with the intention of having those users back to Linux environment.

Zorin OS gives the users the same environment as Windows has. Even Zorin can be customised to change the desktop environment exactly same as Windows. In other words you can say that Zorin is the perfect replacement of Windows OS.

Download Zorin OS

These are some of the Linux distros which are popular to switch for Windows to Linux. The list is not the end. I am going to find some more distros which can be used in place of Windows. Till then it’s done.

If you have something to add here , please write a comment to let me know. Thank You.

Bodhi Linux 4.2.0 Released – Powered by Kernel 4.10

The Research & Development department of Bodhi Linux has released the new Bodhi Linux 4.2.0. This version is released after four months of last release. This new product is not the featured release , if you are already using a Bodi Linux then you do not need to reinstall the OS. Bodhi 4.2.0 is powered by Kernel 4.10. By default it has installed Swami Control panel.

Bodhi Linux 4.2.0 – An extension of Bodhi  4.1.0

If you came on our website for the first time , then you should know that we are publishing article regarding Linux distros frequently. There are so many Linux distributions available in the world. We write about almost all of them. This distros is used for Light wieght systems. You can say it is not a memory intensive OS.

Bodhi Linux is one of the Light weight OS used by linux users. The latest version of this OS is 4.2.0 which is released recently. The previous version of Bodhi Linux i.e. 4.1.0 is the stable release for Bodhi 4.2.0.

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Bodhi Minimum System Requirements

The Bodhi Linux as told above is not a Feature rich version, so there is no reason to upgrade your computer with this new version. This release is powered by the Kernel 4.10 which keeps the current ISO up to date.

With this OS , Swami Control is also installed by default. This is the first release where 32 bit PAE discs is left. 32 bit machines are still supported but you need to use the legit ISO image.

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Bodhi Linux Install – Moksha Desktop Review

If you are an existing user, going to update the system, then you will be already having the updates in your system. Users can also install latest kernels and install Swami using the package manager.

If you are going to install this new release of Bodhi Linux then you can do it by visiting the link.

http://www.bodhilinux.com/2017/05/31/bodhi-linux-4-2-0-released

Selecting the Correct ISO Image for Bodhi Linux 4.2.0

Bodhi offers three types of Images for Installation.

  1. Standard
  2. AppPack
  3. Legacy

Standard

This standard installation is done on Desktop & Workstation which are more rthan 10 years old. If your Processor is capable of 64-bit OS , you should be using this image for Installation.

Legacy 

This is a 32 bit release. This ISO exploits the older 3.2 kernel that is optimized for old hardware. This kernel does not includes the PAE extension that do not support the older systems. If your PC do not supports 64 bit operating system then this is best for you.

AppPack 

The standard release featured the minimal installation which allows the user to add exactly those features that they want to add. The current default application set for the standard release.

  • Terminology Terminal Emulator
  • Midori Web Browser
  • PCManFM File Manager
  • ePad Text Editor
  • ePhoto Image Viewer
  • eepDater Update Manager
  • ePulse Audio Settings
  • Swami System Panel

So if you find this article useful then please provide a comment on how it helped you. You can also like us on Facebook or Subscribe us for more Updates using your E-mail Id. Thank You

Features of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver Release Date ,Subiquity Installer GNOME 3.28

Ubuntu 18.04 release date, new features, upgrade procedure and everything important associated with it. 

The CEO of of Ubuntu Distro , Mark Shuttleworth has announced about the Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark.. The new Ubuntu 18.04 will be a LTS release & will be called Bionic Beaver. The word beaver means a large, amphibian rodent which has sharp teeth & smooth fur. Bionic refers to the artificial body parts.

Ubuntu 18.04 Review & New Features After Release

If you an Ubuntu user, then you can see the features of new Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. If you are an Ubuntu user with a previous version i.e. LTS version, then you can perform an upgrade in your computer. But before that you can see the features of this new Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver.

The founder of Ubuntu 18.04 Mr. Mark Shuttleworth Says

“It’s builders that we celebrate – the people that build our upstream applications and packages, the people who build Ubuntu, and the people who build on Ubuntu. In honour of that tireless toil, our mascot this cycle is a mammal known for it’s energetic attitude, industrious nature and engineering prowess. We give it a neatly nerdy 21st century twist in honour of the relentless robots running Ubuntu Core. Ladies and gentlemen, I give you 18.04 LTS, the Bionic Beaver.”

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS arrives April 26, 2018, powered by Linux kernel 4.15

The release date of Ubuntu 18.04 has been announced & the date is very easy to predict. The Ubuntu 18.04 Release is on April 26th, 2018. By now, the builds are available for testing purposes

  1. Alpha 1 Release: 4th January
  2. Alpha 2 Release: 1st February
  3. Feature Freeze, Debian Import Freeze: 1st March
  4. Beta 1 Release: 8th March
  5. Final Beta Release: 5th April
  6. Final Freeze, Release Candidate: 19th April
  7. Final Ubuntu 18.04 release: 26th April

All of you know that the development process of Ubuntu Desktop is gone through the process written above. The dates mentioned above may be some different, but the release date will the same. These dates will provide you enough information about the next release & installation for your Ubuntu machine.

Features of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver

These are some of the features which are given in the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS . We will update this article frequently. So you can visit us again.

New default applications

Last year, Ubuntu ran a survey and asked its users what they would like to have as default applications. The results were declared a few weeks later with over 15,000 responses:

 Category Top Voted Default Application
 Browser  Mozilla Firefox
 Video Player  VLC
 IDE  Visual Studio Code
 Video Editor  Kdenlive
 Screen Recorder  Open Broadcaster Software (OBS)
 Email Client  Thunderbird
 Text Editor  gedit
 Office Suite  LibreOffice
 Music Player  VLC
 Photo Viewer  Shotwell
 Terminal  GNOME Terminal
 PDF Reader  Evince
 Photo Editor  Gimp
 IRC/IM  Pidgin
 Calendar  GNOME Calendar

GNOME 3.28 desktop

Ubuntu has shifted to the new GNOME desktop as default with some tweaks. If you haven’t used Ubuntu 17.10 yet, then you will have a new experience with the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. The GNOME version in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is expected to be GNOME 3.28.

Kernel 4.15

Canonical team provides new version of kernel after every six months. The official announcement of Ubuntu in a blog post is that “The team expects that Linux kernel 4.15 will power Ubuntu 18.04”.

New desktop and icon theme

Ubuntu 18.04 will not have GTK theme. Suru is the default icon theme. This existing icon theme is developed by the same developer like Moka and Paper. The appearance of Ubuntu desktop will be similar to the earlier version of Ubuntu. This statement is still valid when we have already told about the new GNOME desktop.

Xorg by default

In April 2018, the next LTS will be released with both traditional Xorg graphics and new Wayland-based stack.Xorg will be the default. The development team has given some reasons for the same. This may perform better with the software like Hangouts, Skype, and WebRTC services, in Xorg. It will recover better for Shell crashes. There can be a re-consider for Way-land as default.

Minimal installation option

With Ubuntu 18.04 LTS release, the users will be able to perform a lean installation of Ubuntu. The option will remove the software packages & you will get a system with a desktop environment, web browser, core system tools, and no much more. This will be seen in Ubuntu installer.

Ubuntu will collect some data

Canonical will also start collecting some user data related to the system configuration & installed packages on the machine. With Ubuntu 18.04 LTS,this opt out option will be provided in installer. This feature will be discussed soon. Here’s the kind of data Ubuntu 18.04 will be collecting:

  • Version and flavor of Ubuntu you’re installing
  • Whether you have network connectivity at install time
  • Hardware statistics such as CPU, RAM, GPU, etc
  • Device manufacturer
  • Your country
  • Time taken to complete the installation
  • Whether you choose auto login, installing third-party codecs, downloading updates during install
  • Disk layout
  • Ubuntu Popcorn service will track the popularity of applications and packages
  • Crash reports

New installer for Ubuntu Server

The Ubuntu 18.04, Canonical will refresh the Ubuntu server’s command line installer. The installer will be called Subiquity as default in the upcoming LTS release. This change will provide new look to the server installation process, other than the Debian’s text-based installer.

Support for color emojis

Ubuntu desktop will also have colorful emojis. This new feature will show color emojis in different apps. Emojis have become an important messaging & communication entity. So, the colorful emoji will provide a new experience while chatting.

Faster boot time

By using systemd features , canonical is working to decrease the boot latency. This exciting change will be interesting to see their work in Desktop team.

How to upgrade from 16.04 LTS to 18.04 LTS ?

Before you do anything, make sure that your system is already up-to-date. Run a full Ubuntu update and upgrade with Apt.

$ sudo apt update 
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt dist-upgrade

This will help to ensure that the difference between packages is as small as possible. It also will be the way that Canonical has most likely tested the upgrade themselves, so it’s least likely to encounter bugs. Lastly, before you begin to upgrade Ubuntu to 18.04 LTS you may also want to remove all no longer required packages using:

$ sudo apt dist-upgrade