What Is

What are the different parts of a Motherboard computer – Computer Motherboard pdf Circuit Diagram

laptop motherboard components and their functions pdf
laptop motherboard components and their functions pdf

Motherboard components and types of motherboard functions in laptop. 

A computer is the most evolving machine in the 21st century. But those who are trying to know about the motherboard computer after opening its circuits. There is a green board that is connected to every component of the computer.

Few years back when I was very naive in the computer world , then I had no knowledge about it. But now I have the knowledge to explain you the various parts that resides in the motherboard computer.

What does a Motherboard do – Motherboard parts and functions with picture

Motherboard is a Chip that holds many circuits & components of a computer.  This post will help you to know how a motherboard functions with all other components to work for a computer.

Motherboard: Definition

Motherboard is the most essential part of a computer. The main function of this part is to hold crucial parts of a computer which includes CPU , Memory Units & Input Output Devices.

The base of a motherboard is a very firm sheet on semi conductor & some rigid plastic. Thin layers of copper or aluminium foil are printed on the sheet. The traces are narrow & forms the circuit between various components. There are many small circuits in a motherboard.

What is a Motherboard? – Motherboard Components and their functions

Motherboard is a basic board , technically called a printed circuit board. It is used to connect the different parts of Computer like CPU, Memory , Printer , Mouse. Those who have seen the motherboard connected to the computer that there are multiple lines that are going in the different direction. These are connected to the different components of computer to communicate between the CPU & devices. Communication is done through the electrical signals. These signals are as same as the current flowing in the normal circuit but less in voltage.

Parts of a Motherboard

If you open a computer & see the motherboard , then you can see the motherboard & the components connected to it. The motherboard are different depending on the model & design of a computer.

You don’t need to be an expert, but you should know about the basic of Motherboard. If you will know about some of the parts of a motherboard , then it will be easy to fix your PC.

  1. CPU Socket :- A CPU Socket is soldered in the socket. A CPU generates a lot of heat , for this heat sinks & mounting points for fans are fixed in a CPU socket.
  2. Power Connector :- It is connected to the CPU & other components to distribute power.
  3. DRAM Chips :- There is a slot for system’s main memory in the form of DRAM chips.
  4. NorthBridge :- A chip which acts as an interface between CPU , Main Memory & other components.
  5. The second chip controls I/O functions. It is connected to the Northbridge. It is named as Southbridge. Together Northbridge and Southbridge combined are called as the chipset.
  6. The connectors which creates a physical interface between I/O devices & motherboard.
  7. SATA & IDE :- Slots to connect multiple hard disks. These are called Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) and Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA).
  8. BIOS Chip :- A ROM chip which contains firmware & boot progra, for the computer.
  9. AGP & PCI Slots :- To connect a graphic card. The full form of AGP & PCI is Accelerated Graphics Port and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express.

Motherboard Diagram Images with label –  Motherboard’s History – Motherboard Backplane

laptop motherboard components and their functions pdf
laptop motherboard components and their functions pdf

History of motherboard is as old as microprocessor’s. Microprocessors are like the one which is in your computer like Core I5. Before the invention of motherboard, the computer were made made through multiple PCB’s. These PCB are connected with a back-plane. Back-plane arrange all the other connectors in the parallel way. All the components are connected to the computer via back-plane.

After some years of improvement in the technologies, those back-planes were gone & all the components are connected into a single PCB. This PCB is named as motherboard.

Single Chip Motherboard

After 1980’s Apple & IBM has released the documentation & blueprint of Motherboard. The mass production of Motherboard was started which help the Apple & IBM more popular among the common people. Motherboard has become more complex than before. Thereafter single chip motherboard was developed which supported mouse & keyboard too.

After the millennium 2000 came the advent of clock came & the component like audio, video & network adapters were also embedded in the same chip. The motherboard which comes now in the market have zero option to customize it. The size of motherboard has decreased now & will shrink more in the later years.

Size & Standard of Motherboard – Types of Motherboard

Motherboard Form Factor

Size & shape of motherboard computer is termed in to a single word that is form factor. Most of all motherboard size & shape are same. Some of them differ in the change of brand to brand.

Some of the popular brands are

  1. ATX by Intex.
  2. DTX by AMD.

One more popular form factor that are used by Apple & Intel NUC is MiniPC. These computers are mainly used for word processing , Internet access & video processing.

Components of a Motherboard – Motherboard Components and their functions

  1. Memory Slots
  2. Sockets
  3. Chipset
  4. Clock Generator
  5. Expansion Card Slots
  6. Storage Connector
  7. Power Connector
  8. Operating Temperature

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What is a Backlink & How you can a be a Millionaire using it Properly

Backlink is a very common term for a blogger or a website owner. If you don’t know much about Backlink SEO, you should read our content so that you would be able to use them for your website SEO.

What is Backlink in an SEO Campaign

Those who want their new blog or website to have a high ranking in google or any other search result should be aware about this. A link of another website in an article is considered as a backlink. A backlink SEO is a major factor in search ranking. A website with more backlinks ranks better in Google or any other search engine.

How a Backlink in useful in your website
How a Backlink in useful in your website

Terms in Baclink SEO

Here I am going to explain you some of those terms which are related to the backlink SEO concept.

Link Juice

If a website links to another website, say your website it passes a link juice. This link juice improves the ranking of an article & improves the domain authority. You can use a no-follow tag to stop the link juice.

No-follow tag

If a website has a no-follow tag, then the link will not produce link juice. You can use the no- follow tag when you don’t want bother the ranking of an article.  No follow tag will let you unconnected from a website which is not a reliable site.

Do-follow link Usage

This works exactly the reverse of no-follow tag. It passes the link juice.

Linking Root Domain

It counts the unique domains that refer a backlink to your website. If a website created multiple backlinks to your site, then it will be considered as one backlink.

Low Quality Backlinks 

These backlinks are made by a low grade sites or low esteem sites such as porn sites. These backlinks will not help you & degrade your articles rank. If you are buying backlinks from somewhere then you should know about this concept.

Internal Links

The links which are placed in the a site to another page of same site are internal links . This process is called interlinking.

Use Anchor Tag

If a keyword is used to make a backlink, then the article will rank for the particular keyword used in anchor tag. This information can be sued wisely for ranking.

Advantages of a Backlink SEO in a Website Ranking

Earlier when the backlink concept was new, the low quality back links were also used to help for the ranking. After the Google penguin algorithm, there are some changes that every blogger must know.

Also ReadHow to make Social Networking site like Facebook

A backlink should be from a high quality domain. Second the backlink must be made in the relevant site. If a site like mine which focuses on technical niche creates backlinks in a food site, then the backlink will be of no use.

Now have a look on the benefits of having the backlinks SEO for a website

Improve Organic Rank using Quality Backlinks

If a website has backlink from other websites then it will help you in getting more organic traffic & rank in search engines. It is recommended to make backlinks for a post with the heading of the article.

Faster Indexing 

The search engine bots will discover the link & make better crawling for the website. If your website is a new one, then some backlinks will be helpful for you.

Referral Traffic

It helps to get a referral traffic for website. Referral traffic provides lower bounce rate to the website.

How to get Backlinks for a website Automatically

As I explained above that the number of backlinks do not matter, it is the quality of backlinks that matters. There are three methods that I know to create quality backlinks for a website.

  • Improve quality of articles
  • Comment on other Websites
  • Submit to web directories
Improve quality of articles

If you write good quality articles then there is a higher chance of getting good backlinks from other sites. Other sites will place the links in the website to refer on your site.

Comment on other Websites

A safe method of getting backlinks is to comment on someone’s article & place a link of your website in the comment. This will provide you link juice. A recent study has shown the use of no-follow tag does not matter in getting link juice for a backlink.

Submit to web directories

If you can find some good web directories which can help you for creating a backlink then you can use them for a backlink.

Also ReadHow to remove virus via Android Phone without Factory restore

That’s all for this article, I Hope the information given here is useful for you. Follow us on Facebook for more updates from us. Thank You.

How Cryptocurrency works – Factors which raises the price of Bitcoin

What Affects the price of a CryptoCurrency

Cryptocurrency is a new trending currency in the world. It works on the same principle where a currency or an account gets value if people thinks it has value. Many cryptocurrencies are made on the roots of Gold & other precious metal while others are on nothing. But if a cyrptocurrency is valued by people & used as trade then it rises.

The basic aim of any crypto-currency was to place your assets safely without relying on any central banking services. Today I am going to tell you some aspects which affects the price of a crypto-currency (All of them). After reading this article , you will be able to know about the working & rising factors of crypto-currency.

What Affects the price of a CryptoCurrency
What Affects the price of a CryptoCurrency

How the Price of a cryptocurrency Raises & Falls Down ?

There are so many factors which affect the price of a crypto-currency , we are going to know some of them today.

Demand & Supply of a Cryptocurrency 

The price of precious metals are affected by the demand & supply. Supply/Demand is a simple economic factor that affects any cryptocurrency. For Ex- Bitcoin is considered as an asset in some countries while currency in other countries.

If the supply of a crypto-currency is controlled or limited & people think it has value more than they are paying, then soon the crypto-currency will rise over the price.

Now if a crypto-currency has reduced supply & people don’t even bother to buy it, then the cypto-currency will soon fall down.

Cost of making crypto currency

The energy consumption of the security block chain is quite high. The most popular block chains i.e proof of work (POW) consumes very high amount of electricity. If we want an estimate, then a block chain consumes so much electricity which is equal to the consumption of a small country.

This consumption affects the price of a crypto. The price will be added on a single unit of crypto-currency which determines the minimum price of a currency.

Level of Difficulty in Mining the crypto 

The security of block chains defines the level of difficulty for mining a crypto-currency. How difficult the mining is on the platform ( the resources & labor spend on it). This directly impact the price which can be seen on the blockchains such as Bitcoin and Litecoin.

Utility of a CryptoCurrency

The main impact of the price of a crypto is based of its utility or usage. If you can’t use a crypto as investment or payment use , then that crypto will not not be able to rise as Bitcoin. In case of Bitcoin, it is used for payments & investment both. This gave Bitcoin a very high price & utility. As Ether was designed for smart contract platform which increases the price over other alt coins. The change in utility causes price volatility.

Public Perceptions (Point of view)

What people perceive on a crypto is a very fastest factor which effect the price of a crypto-currency. If people think the currency as a trust factor & buy them more & more , then the value will increase. For example IN Bitcoin people has bring trust on it & start buying more & more to invest in it. Now presently everyone knows the level that it has touched.

The trust value is made by many factors like

  • Security in the Blockchain.
  • People’s reviews after their investment.

There are so many cryptos which are not known to people & are smaller than any popular ones.

Price of Bitcoin

The price of Bitcoin has effected the mind of many people who think cryptos are not as secure investment. But after people getting high investment returns on Bitcoin. People start checking other alternatives of bitcoin who can’t afford a bitcoin. This influence the circulation of other alternatives of cryptos.

Bitcoin has become a standard in other cryptos. Many cryptos are based on the secure blockchains of Bitcoin.

Bitcoin is first mainstream crypto & most supported, trusted cryptocurrency which created trusts on other cryptos.

Media (What your Media Says) Perspective about Cryptocurrency 

The reports of Media can fame or defame anything which applies on cryptos too. The Newspapers & News channel creates a perception of a crypto in the people minds who reads or watches them. The positive or negative reviews of any crypto will effect the circulation of Bitcoin & causes the price to fluctuate.

Investors

If a cryptocurrency is not much popular, then the prices of such crypto can be affected in the multiple ways

  • Crypto with less  price can be stocked by investors & then try to promote them to increase the price.
  • If investors spend too much on a crypto , then the price of that can be increased or decreased faster.
  • If Investors shows their interest in a currency, then common people will be influenced and investment of the currency increase which results in higher price.

Market Dilution

Every Crypto-currency has been made with some purpose. The first cryptos were made for some purposes. For example Bitcoin was the first crypto , Litecoin was silver to Bitcoin Gold. Peercoin used an innovative POW and POS (proof of stake) combination. Ether had a practical utility for being a smart contract token to allow distributed, secure execution of smart contracts, for the price of what the ether token is, which very few cryptocurrencies can do.

These are some of the know reasons by which a cryptocurrency can be a successful or unsuccessful. If you find this article useful, then please comment to let us know , Share with your friends & Family to get some useful information about the same. Thank You.

Useful DOS Commands You Should Know – Helps you to become computer expert

DOS is one of the underrated operating system. As it is a very powerful operating system. If you know about the commands that can be used to do some very great stuff. The knowledge of these DOS commands will help you in the your daily life as well as in the hacking world. Some of those DOS commands are written here for you.

Many of us don’t even know what & how much that DOS can do. Most of the users just use it to check the Internet connection. I mean the PING command. But if you like to know more about the DOS then you must check this article. I guarantee you will get some benefit in knowledge of DOS  & better handling of your computer.

These commands will let you leave your mouse for a while. So let’s start with the amazing commands.

Some tricky DOS commands

  1. Command History  :- Sometimes we have used some commands in our system & could not remember it. Imagine if we have a option to check the history , yes it is already there. i.e. doskey /history.
  2. Run two commands at a same command line  :- Run two commands in a single line would be more helpful & reminds me of Linux commands. You can run two commands in a single go by using && between two commands. For ex- ipconfig && dir.
  3. Use of Function Key in DOS prompt :- This could be new thing for you. Here the list of all commands & their functions respectively.
    • F1 :- type first character of last command you type. If you press F1 multiple times, then you it type next other characters of last command.
    • F2 : – Copy the character of previous command up-to a specific length
    • F3 :- Retype the last command entered.
    • F4 :- Remove the desired part of previous command.
    • F5 :- copies the template to command line.
    • F6 :- Undo the last action.
    • F7 :- Shows history of commands entered in the current session.
    • F8 : – displays all the commands which start with the specific character.
    • F9 :- Displays command with the serial they were entered in the prompt in the current session.

Also Read :- How to fix missing DLL files error in windows

DOS commands
DOS commands

  • Check PC Driver :- You can check all the drivers installed in the computer with all the other information associated with them. Command is driverquery.
  • Save the output in clipboard :- Sometimes we like to save the command in a separate file. A better to save them without using copy & paste is ipconfig | clip.
  • Abort a command :-  if you want to abort a command which you used before than you can simply do this by pressing Ctrl + C.
  • Change color of your command prompt  :-  The background of DOS can be changed by a right click -> properties-> Go to color tab. Now change background & text color.
  • Create wi-fi Hotspot using command prompt :- You can create free wi-fi hotspot using your computer wi-fi receiver if it supports wi-fi broadcasting. You will know after you will run this command.Use command prompt with administrative access & type the command netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow ssid= hotspotname key= password.

Now you can switch it on by netsh wlan start hostednetwork. Switch it off with netsh wlan stop hostednetwork.

  • Scan System files for error check :- This command scans the whole system to find any error regarding system error & fixes them. i.e. sfc /scannow.
  • Speed up Internet :- Sometimes your system needs to find a new DNS for every request. You can flush the DNS by using this command. After the use of this command. Your websites will load quicker than before. i.e. – ipconfig/flushdns

If you find the article useful.Please provide us your precious feedback in comment box. Thank you.

Also Read  :- How to  clean bad sectors in an old pen drive.

The Original Bitcoin Whitepaper

In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto (anonymously) introduced bitcoin to the world through the whitepaper titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer electronic Cash System”.

The aims were to allow direct electronic transactions between two parties, and eliminate issues of ownership and double spending, which is the reason third-parties (financial institutions) are involved in electronic transactions.

The whitepaper will be summarized here. A simple but extensive explanation is available on trybe.one website.

The abstract of the whitepaper gives an insight to what it’s all about, “A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution.”

What is A Bitcoin

The introduction is about the involvement of financial institutions as a trusted third-party in processing the transaction. It stated that it was not totally possible for the third-party to ensure non-reversal of transactions and so service costs were introduced to the transaction and the transfer of small amounts was made unreasonable. The proposed solution to this was a system that made computational reversal impossible thus protecting the seller and a regular escrow system to protect the buyer from purchasing an already sold coin. In carrying out transactions, an electronic coin (bitcoin) is transferred from the present owner to the next. This coin isn’t actually like a physical coin; it is a record of ownership which contains the history of all past transactions, and to transfer ownership, the person currently in possession of the coin signs a hash in the previous transaction and includes the address (public key) of the new buyer to the block. Fraud of double spending is eliminated by making every transaction public; the latest transaction involving a particular coin is displayed, making it possible to track the address of the coin and determine if the seller hasn’t actually sold it to someone else.

To maintain his objective, Satoshi introduced a decentralised network of nodes owned by different people or groups. These nodes are in a sort of competition. They all try to find the code to a transaction known as proof-of-work. According to the whitepaper, “Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block.” This means different proof-of-works can be found by different nodes in the network. Other nodes on the network then decide to add more blocks to one they prefer until a period when one of the chains gets significantly longer than the others causing the other blocks to be discarded.

It is possible for a person or group to own multiple nodes in the network, leading to the possibility of fraud. To discourage this, incentives are given to miners who successfully generate an accepted proof-of-work so that they support the network rather than work against it. The incentive given is a fixed value of bitcoin for each successful block. When a miner finds the hash value for a new block of transaction, new bitcoins are created, and the miner is in its possession as their reward. This idea has ensured that the bitcoin block-chain remains a holistic system since miners see it is as more beneficial to support the system than damage it.

The growth in the value of bitcoin shows how successful this plan has become; eliminating financial institutions’ involvement in electronic transactions thereby solving the problems that arise from trust, and also eliminating service charges and taxation collected on transactions.

What are DLL Files ? Download DLL to fix window errors

While installing any application or software in the windows operating system may you have ever encountered by some error regarding DLL files. You want to know about these DLL files. These DLL files are very useful for the softwares. They help in reducing code delicacy & improving performance of the application software.

Being a windows PC user for so many years, you must have seen problems that are made in the computer by DLL files. Some times DLL files don’t allow some applications to install in the computer. This problem can be removed by just finding the appropriate DLL file on the internet.

What is a DLL file?

DLL is the acronym for Dynamic link library. It is a set of shared library by the Microsoft corporation. It is a file that helps the application to do certain stuff. It can be shared by multiple processes & application to avoid duplicability. These DLL files consisting of class, functions , variable & other resources like icon , images etc.

Every operating system contains two type of files in them i.e. static library & dynamic library. Static library are linked to the program at compile time while the dynamic library are linked during run time. A dynamic library is an independent file that updates without any interruption of application software.

fix DLL files error
fix DLL files error

Use of DLL Files

When an .exe or an application is loaded in the main memory. The windows OS check the table data attached to it. This table data also have the functions specified with the respected DLL. There is an attribute called export list which connects each function of DLL with specific address.

Also ReadYou can use Facebook as Google search engine to find anything

DLL works in order to save disk space in the computer. One DLL can be useful to many applications. This also helps to improve the performance of programs running either in background or foreground. This property of DLL helps in the modular approach of programming.

As I wrote above that a single DLL is helpful for multiple applications, so you can update any DLL independent of any other application.

Fixing DLL Errors

As there are many DLL files around, DLL errors are very common. Many don’t know how to fix them. This is not so difficult, you can download it & place it in the required location.

As DLL are used by multiple programs , so they are saved in a specific location i.e. C:\Windows\System32 and C:\Windows\SysWOW64. You must be very careful while downloading a DLL file from Internet. Those files could be infected with virus or corrupted.

Four Methods to correct DLL File errors.

  • Open system file checker to check the status of missing files.
  • Download the update for Microsoft Visual C++ Redistributable packages.
  •  Reinstall the application to fix DLLs.
  • You can request to the application vendor for the missing DLL files.

If you find anything helpful in this article , please tell us by writing a comment below.

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Learn Ping of Death Attack using Command prompt & Notepad for Educational Purpose

Ping of death attack tutorial

Ping command is used by most of us for checking the Internet connection & the speed of Internet. Have you ever think that it could be used to perform denial of service attack. If you use the ping with a larger packet, then the buffer of the server will be full soon & the system will crash. This is called ping of death.

Ping of Death O Que é  – Ping of death Source Code

You must be very excited to know the trick of making a server down.If you could use ping command in such away that could invoke the server in denial of service. This can be done by increasing the packet size of ping. The general size of packet is 56 bytes of 84 bytes, but if you want to increase the size than you can do it by increasing it to the biggest i.e. 65536 bytes.

This bigger size of packet can be very harmful to a server. This will be a malformed ping which results in a type of attack what we call ping of death. Ping generally provides us the three headers that are size of packet, time elapsed & time to live. The size of packet is 32 , 56 or 84 bytes, Time elapsed is based on the server response & time to live is mostly 58 milli-seconds. As the size of packet can be altered up to 65536 bytes ,which could led to some serious issues.

What is Ping of Death ?

First of all we should know what ping is. Technically speaking , ping is a basic Internet program designed to check a system’s IP Address whether it exists or not. After it is confirmed that it exists than you can verify if it accept requests or not. Ping sends a echo requests to the server machine & waits until the server reply it with the same packet.In the whole process, ping calculates the connectivity & the response time that it will take.

Ping is the acronym for the Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper. This term is taken from the submariners who work with the return sound pulse from the sea & calculate the depth of sea.Ping is a command which is programmed in every platform i.e. windows or Linux.

Also Read : Want to learn Useful Pro DOS commands for network analysis

Every computer has a limit to handle the data packets. If the data packets are larger than the fixed size, then it will split the packet into fragments of smaller packet. These fragments will be stored in the buffer.

Every fragment is of 8 octets. When these packets are reassembled by the target machine , they are needed to reassemble.As the reassemble process completes the buffer overflow happens & the security to the server becomes more vulnerable as before. Now you can  inject a Trojan horse to it

Warning : The trick is described only for the educational purpose. You can use to learn something but don’t use it to do any harm.

How to perform Ping of Death

Now follow the steps to perform the whole trick.

  • Click to open a new notepad file.
  • Copy the code in notepad.

:loop
ping <IP Address> -l 65500 -w 1 -n 1
goto :loop

  • Here in the <IP Address> must be replaced with an IP Address.
  • Save the file with abc.txt.
  • Now go to the location & rename the file as abc.txt to abc.bat.
  • The extension .bat is a windows batch file.
  • Now open the file & you will see many pings are going on to the target machine.

This process may not work on systems .If you have tried the trick on your system then please reply me with a comment of your experience. We will share some more tricks with you in the near future. Thank you.

Also ReadHow to find windows product key using CMD or Powershell

So if you find this article useful then please provide a comment on how it helped you. You can also like us on Facebook or Subscribe us for more Updates using your E-mail Id. Thank You.

Linux vs Windows vs Mac Performance , Gaming Difference

You must have heard of Linux OS. After reading this article you will know everything about it. This will cover all the aspects of Linux operating system.

About Linux – History of Linux / Linux History Timeline

Linux is an unix based operating system. It was developed by Linus Torvalds. It is an open source operating system   which means it is not owned by anyone or any organisation. It is a very powerful operating system for any user who is searching an alternative to windows OS. Linux was developed in 1991. It was the period of hardware upgrade. At that time DOS & Mac were the only operating system for the computers. As DOS was economical for the PC users while Mac was lot more expensive than DOS. In same decade , Linus Torvalds who was studying in the Helsinki university created a new core operating system. After the development was completed , it was given away by him for free.

Linux Academy Linux Architecture Linux Kernel

Now linux is one of the mostly used operating system in the IT sector for the security reasons. It is the favorite OS for the servers as it can work for years without any reboot or maintenance.

Reasons of linux for becoming so popular

There are various reasons why linux has become the most popular operating system in the IT sector businesses. We are writing some of those features which will make you fall in love with linux OS.

  • The first most interesting part of linux is that nobody owns it’s source code. The source code is also given free with this operating system. The source code can be modified by the user if the user wants to customize the Linux core according to his needs. There are no complex license agreements as in the case of windows or Mac.
  • There is no cost for this operating system. The core of linux comes with general public license or GNU. It is a very robust OS used in very big organisations. It can handle any number of users irrelevant of their resource usage. It is also very helpful in networking applications. Sometimes when a network computer or a server having very low disk space , linux handles the users request very efficiently.
  • Linux is a very hardware independent OS which can work in any type of hardware. Because of this portability it runs on variety of machines like PCs, Macs, mainframes, supercomputers, some cell phones and industrial robots. It also works in dual boot like windows & linux OR Linux & Mac. A very popular Linux operating in laptop computer is Ubuntu.
  • As we are in the threatening world of Viruses, malware attacks & other malicious activities. Linux is safe from all types of such attacks. This is because the platform is very less & the people who are using this OS are mostly ethical users of It industry.
  • As we told you above that the linux is open source , that is why the application software which are used in this platform are also freeware to the linux users.

Limitations Of Linux

As anything in this world is not perfect. There are some disadvantages of the OS. We are going to describe them to you so that you can be well informed about the operating system.

Disadvantages of Linux OS

  • The programs that were used in windows will be longer useful for linux. The application of windows software are of .exe format while Linux does not support .exe. Linux supports .gz, .tgz ,.ps & .txt. But now from some previous years windows emulator has been developed by the companies to fill the gap between windows & Linux OS.
  • There are very less peripherals like printer, scanner etc which are compatible with linux OS. However there are some hardware available which are used with linux OS. But the number of such hardware is very less.For example HP has provided a variety of hardware that is compatible with linux platform.
  • If any windows user who has just switched to the linux platform , he must be too much dependent on the GUI. However there is much better GUI in Linux as compared to the windows , but there are variety of functions that are done by commands in linux, their function is much better than the graphical one.

Linux vs Windows – Difference between Linux and Windows Operating System

  1. Linux kernel & GNU utilities are free to use. There is no money required to use linux OS. While if you want to use a windows operating system than you have to pay around $99 or more to use the Windows operating system.
  2. If any person who wants to work in linux based environment than he must need the deeper understanding with the linux working environment while if we talk about windows, then it is the easiest OS to use because of its GUI & user friendly features.If a windows user has to switch directly to Linux Os then he must learn many other things in order to work in the linux environment.
  3. Linux is way too reliable in terms of usage & real time processing. In the years of improvement windows has become more reliable than ever but still the level of reliability is much higher in linux as compared to the windows OS.
  4. Software Availability :- If you the check the variety of software that windows support is very high as compared to the linux. There are very less software which are supported in linux based OS while in case of windows , windows has the highest number of applications that support it’s platform.
  5. Cost of software :- The software that are available for linux is free while the softwares that are used in windows are not free & need money to purchase them.
  6. Security : The level of security is much higher in Linux to windows. The source code of the linux is available to the users. This enables the user to check & analyze the attack in the system. The vulnerability of Linux OS is less than Windows OS.
  7. Applications :- The application of linux OS is mostly scientfic & organisational. Linux is used in Servers , businesses, NASA. It can work with old hardware as well. Windows are used in home, gaming & entertainment. The software need to be upgraded regularly & the OS do not work in older hardwares.

Also Read : How to remove virus without Anti-virus

Linux vs Macintosh – Mac Vs Linux For Programming

Mac PC runs on OSX. Mac is a product of Apple Inc. There are aspects on which we will compare both OS in the many aspects.

Mac OS vs Linux Differences

  1. Flexibility :- If we use a OSX after using linux then we will see that there is not much independence for a user to do anything. For example if you want o change the desktop in a Mac PC then then you have to download Theme pack which will let you do this. In the case of linux this can be done in two or three clicks.Even linux can let you change the taskbar appearance by installing a different desktop manager.
  2. Open Source :- Apple took the BSD kernel to develop its own kernel known as darwin kernel. After that it was licensed under apple public source which is registered under Free Software Foundation. This Darwin kernel is still locked with Apple. Linux kernel is an open source to every user. Once Apple & open source has worked together to create OpenDarwin Kernel which is a hybrid of Linux & Mac OS.
  3. Command Line : OSX users don’t have much knowledge or need to work with command line. But every techy knows that the importance of command line is more when you need admin acess to the PC. In other words to have an administrative acess to a Mac PC, there are not enough commands in OSX.
  4. Hardware compatibility : In a PC who does not have much advance hardware in it, then OSX will not work better in that. But if we run a linux OS in it, the same PC will work better in terms of performance. Performance of OSX is very much dependant on hardware. Linux is not the same like Mac.
  5. Security : In terms of security , I witnessed a competition in which there were three platforms i.e. windows, linux & Mac. While both windows & linux were hacked & linux was not.The tools for the security are more advanced in linux as compared to Mac or Windows. Mac is also a secure OS but the level of securty that linux has can’t be compared.
  6. Portable:- Linux can be run on any machine unless its size or old hardware. Mac is not as portable in every computer. Linux data can be placed in either 64 bit or 32 bit. While in the Mac computer the files have restricted support in same architecture.
  7. Cost : The cost of using a Mac Machine is very higher. Th cheapest Mac I know is $ 1000. While linux can run on any old machine too. The cost of using the basic features of linux can be made by just an old computer & the Installation CD of Linux. While If you will use an old machine for running Mac OS you will suffer very slow response in Mac.

Linux OS
Linux OS

Now you know the various aspects of linux with other operating system. Linux is a freeware OS. Basically it is a kernel. Linux distributions take this kernel & combine with other software packages in order to provide different Linux distribution. If you will take the kernel & use it without any distribution than it will consume a lot of time in doing this.

You can use any of these Distribution in order to work in a linux environment.

Ubuntu Philosophy

Ubuntu is a very popular linux which is based on debian repositories. It works on GNOME 2 & Unity desktop environment.It updates Long term support(LTS) after every two years. In future there will be Ubuntu running on smartphones & tablet.

Ubuntu Philosophy
Ubuntu Philosophy

Linux Mint

Mint is based on Ubuntu Linux. Both ubuntu & mint uses same software repositories. Linuxmint is an loveable alternative to Ubuntu as it contains all the codecs & proprietary software which are not included in Ubuntu. It uses a traditional desktop called cinnamon desktop. It won’t let critical software updates which declared it as an insecure OS.

Linux Mint
Linux Mint

Debian Wheezy OS

It composed of open source software.The project was started in 1993. From the last 24 years it is still releasing newer versions. They are releasing newer versions very slowly as compared to others. This long time of work make this distribution more secure than others. Their main aim is to provide an secure OS with more user-friendly features.

debian
debian wheezy OS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

It is a commercial linux distribution based on fedora linux. Now the latest version are coming with collaboration with centOS. All the newer versions will be made by CentOS & Red hat. Officially CentOS is a part of red hat now.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux

OpenSuse Linux Tumbleweed

OpenSuse is a bleeding edge version of linux. In 2003 Novell purchased the OpenSuse. Once Opensuse was the best Linux in terms of user friendly feature, now ubuntu has taken the crown from it.

Open Suse
Open Suse

Kali Linux – Hackers Paradise

Kali Linux is debian based OS designed specifically for forensics & Penetration testing.It  is developed & maintained by an organisation called Offensive Security Ltd.It consists of more than 300 penetration testing tools.

Kali linux
Kali linux

Arch Linux Beginners Guide

It is based on KISS (keep it simple , stupid) principle.It is designed for computers that are of i686 and x86-64 architectures.It is mostly works under binary packages.

Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01
Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01

Parrot linux / Parrot Linux 3.6 Parrot AIR

This is also a debian based Os. It is designed for specific tasks such as Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation, Forensics and Anonymous Web Browsing. It is made by Frozen Team.The latest version of parrot linux is Parrot 3.4.1 named as CyberFrigate.

Parrot Linux
Parrot Linux

Also Read : Learn Ethical Hacking Online

These are some of the popular linux distribution which are used by me personally. If you are trying to select any of them for the learning you can download any of them from their official websites.

If you like the information provided by us, please tell us in the comment box. We are waiting for your feedback. Thank You.You can also like us on Facebook or Subscribe us for more Updates using your E-mail Id. Thank You.

What are Google Dorks list in 2018 – Google Search Operators

Google Dorks list , definition and their uses. You can also know about vulnerable websites in the Google SQL dorks. The Google dorks can be for database queries, SEO and for SQL injection.

Hello friends this article is about Google dorks. Google dorks is a set of search queries that can be used by a person to find hidden information from search engine.

History of Google Dorks

This concept of google dorks was started in 2002. Johnny Long is the person who started it & he used this to find the vulnerable & secret information. He named them as Google Dorks or google hacking.

What is Google Dorks in 2018

Google dorks can expose many type of information to the searcher. It can find the private information , username & password & some other details too. You can also say that Google dorks is dark corner where you can find some precious gems.

Now the information you get from can be used anywhere for any purpose. Most of the times is used in illegal activities.

google dorks
google dorks

Google Dorks Search Operator

To use Google dorks , you need to know about the operators used in dorking. So one by one I am going to write all of them one by one.

intitle

Using intitle symbolize google to show only those pages which consist of those string. For example intitle:”login page”. This queries will all the pages which has login page in the title tag.

allintitle

This is similar to intitle but the difference is it will look for all specified terms in the title.

inurl

It search for the terms that are in the specified url.

allinurl

Same as inurl but search for all terms in the url.

filetype

Search for a specific filetype in the websites. For ex: filetype:txt.

ext

Similar to filetype but find extension of files.

intext

Search the content of the webpage like regular google search. For ex intext:”index of /”.

allintext

Same as intext , the difference is that it searches for all the terms that are present in the page.

site 

Searches the content in a single site that is specified. For ex:- site: technicalbudd.com

Basic structure 

“inurl:.”domain”/”dorks” ”

“inurl” : input url

“domain” : your domain like .com

“dorks”: dorks you search

In the place of inurl any of the above explained can be written.

All these dorks are used to find a vulnerability in a website which can be detected & solved.

Here are some tricks that are widely used to find dorks

You can use intitle to find a song or anything in a website like.

intitle: index of mp3

Here you can find the index page of a website

inurl:index.php?id=

Intext 

With this you can find a text that is similar in multiple websites.

intext : “website security tutorial”

Now you will get the name of all websites that provide tutorial related to web security.

So if you like the article please let us know via comment. Like us on Facebook for more updates. Thank You.

Read the three Golden Rules before you go to buy a Bitcoin Wallet – How do you Get a Bitcoin Wallet

best local bitcoin / bitcoinx wallet download app login in android. Also check hot and cold wallet 

Bitcoins are one of the most popular asset which people are preferring nowadays. I have written a small article which has given some basics of bitcoin.  What Is A Bitcoin , All About Buy & Selling

How to Invest in Bitcoin 2018 (Updated) – Can I make Money with Bitcoin?

Before you Invest in Bitcoin
Before you Invest in Bitcoin

As you are reading this, I am sure that you have decided that you are ready to invest in Bitcoin. Here we are going to tell you some of the tips that will help you to choose a Bitcoin wallet. As you know that there is so many variety of Bitcoin wallets , that confuses a person to choose one from them.

But if you will keep the following points in your mind while choosing , then you will be in profit as always.

Note :- The information is based on the basics of Bitcoin wallets , but the principles are useful in other crypto currency as well.

What is a Bitcoin Wallet ? – Types of Crypto Wallets

Bitcoin wallet is a program that helps the person to exchange bitcoins in a easy & simple way. For example , we use E-mail service to manage our sent & received e-mails.

As we now knew about Bitcoin Wallet, now we should be heading to the concept of private key. A Private key is a long string contains text & numbers which becomes the password to the bitcoins.

How to Use Bitcoin Private Key ?

This private key is the key of your Treasure of Bitcoin wallet. This helps you to access your bitcoins in a secure manner. The private key must not be shared with anyone , as they can steal your bitcoins by the private key.

How to Use Bitcoin Private Key
How to Use Bitcoin Private Key

Nowadays wallets uses a seed phrase other than long cumbersome private key. This changes the private key into a 12 to 24 random words which acts as a private key. This simplifies the process in a very efficient way, but this also gives more chance to steal the private key. Always remember that the Private key must not be known to other person.

After reading the above para, you now know that the private key or seed phrase is the most important part of a bitcoin wallet. The private key can be used to restore your bitcoin wallet in case your wallet is stolen or destroyed.

Let’s learn to choose a Wallet.

How to Choose a Bitcoin Wallet

Bitcoin Cold Storage

If you are storing a large number of bitcoins, then Cold storage wallet must be used. Cold Storage wallet are not connected to Internet. Nobody will be able to hack your wallet remotely & steal your bitcoins.

There are some of the examples of cold storage wallets.

Paper Wallets :– Here you can store your private key on a sheet of paper. The key is only stored in the paper & to steal the key someone needs to see that paper. The only problem is that life of paper is not so much & it gets corrupted easily or can be lost.

The other limitation of a paper wallet is that you can only receive Bitcoins & no way to send them. If you want to send the bitcoins to somewhere, then you need to connect to the paper wallet to digital wallet by importing the private key. This will allow you to process your transactions.

Bitcoin USB Wallets / Hardware Bitcoin Wallets

Hardware wallets :- The hardware wallets are the most common paper wallets. The physical device hold the private key for the user. During the transaction, this device need to connected to your computer & complete your transaction with the desired amount.

Bitcoin USB Wallets
Bitcoin USB Wallets

The hardware wallet will verify the transaction digitally & broadcast it to the network. The hardware wallet is a secure device that creates a safe handle while user completes the transaction. Th technical details of the security is not written here but the basic can be known.

The hardware wallet is the best alternative for Bitcoin wallet security which provides security as well as ease of use. The most popular companies which produces hardware wallets are TREZOR and Ledger.

The cost of hardware wallet is very high as compared to other alternatives. This is suitable to those who have a good amount of bitcoin. You can easily afford the hardware wallet as it gives the best way to secure your wallet.

Hot Wallets or Software Wallet

The next option is a less secure but is more faster than the first one i.e. Hot wallets. A hot wallet is a wallet which is connected to the Internet in some way. This wallet is installed in a mobile phone , laptop or hosted in a website.

Hot wallets can be hacked in general. There must be less amount that should be kept in these wallets. The value must be less. The number depends on your financial status. The amount should be less that you can afford to get stolen. For someone , this amount can be $100 & for someone it could be 1000.

Types of Hot Wallets

Hot wallets are classified into two types. Let’s check both of them.

  • Web wallets :- These wallets holds the coins for you. You can’t get the access for the private key & you are totally dependant on the wallet issuer. The examples of such wallets are exchanges, gambling sites or anyone who don’t provide you any access to the private key.
  • Self-hosted wallets :- Here you download the program in your personal device i.e. Desktop , tablet or mobile. The private key is stored in the device. You will get the full control on your bitcoins but the risk of losing is also equal.  If your device is stolen or broken, then your access to the bitcoins will be gone. To avoid such situation , you should create a wallet backup.

Backup & Restore the Private Key of a Bitcoin Wallet

The most important security measure for having a bitcoin wallet is to create a backup for the same. In other words , you should create a copy of your private key /seed phrase.

The backup of your Private key must be kept in a piece of paper or in a digital storage. But the backup should be kept secret & offline. The unauthorised access to the private key can result in losing of the bitcoins.

We hope , that this information must be quite helpful for all the readers who are trying to get the required awareness before they start investing in the same. This is completed for now.

We will be back with some more information about Crypto currencies. You can share this with your friends to let them know more about this. Thank You.