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Introduction to Parrot Linux – How to use ParrotSec Security OS PDF / Basic Commands in Parrot Operating System

ParrotSec Security OS PDF

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial is a popular pentesting OS used by penetration testers. Here we are providing you some simple commands for the same in PDF. 

Hacking cannot be done without tools. These tools are the foundations of hacking.Today we are going to provide you some details about Parrot Linux. A Linux distribution which is helpful for the hackers to grow some knowledge & practice it.

Parrot Linux install – Parrot OS 3.11 Latest version Review

Parrot Linux is a very simple Operating System that is a very user friendly OS used for the purpose of Hacking. Many tools & software packages are already packed in it. This bunch of software are used for hacking as well as another daily usage.It is closely related to Debian Linux.

Features of Parrot 3.11 Review

The new release has so many new improvements & security fixes compared to the previous versions.

  • Updated version of the Linux 4.14 kernel.
  • A new car hacking menu now contains a collection of useful open source tools in the automotive industry to test real world cars or simulate CANBus networks.
  • Metasploit and postgresql are now patched to work flawlessly out of the box in live mode.
  • Other important updates include Firefox 58, increased installer stability, many updated security tools and some important graphic improvements.
  • Parrot Studio was reintroduced with many improvements, this special derivative of Parrot is designed for multimedia production as an improved version of Parrot Home for workstations, with many useful productivity tools pre-installed.
  • This release will probably be the last version of the 3.x series (except for eventual security updates), and we wanted to include some of the changes that we planned for parrot 4.x as a gift for our community.

Book to learn Parrot OS

Features & specification of Parrot Linux – Parrot Security OS Tutorial PDF

Parrot linux is based on kernel 4.1 & debian 8. It’s desktop is based on MATE. Display manager is “lightdm”.There are many features in this linux which specifically places it as a unique one.

Features of Parrot Linux – Parrot OS Tools

Anti-Forensic Tools

A very unique feature that makes it different from other Linux OS. Tools that can encrypt a file, partition or whole drive.Like this there are many other anti-forensic tools which can be used by businesses to secure their data.

Pandora’s Box

This tool is a very useful tool for a forensic expert. As you know the data used by computer is stored in RAM temporarily & get erased after the computer is shut down. The statement above is false partially. Pandora’s box is a tool that is used by the forensic expert to recover the data which was on the RAM after shutdown. This can disclose all the details or tasks that were done by the previous user.

This tool will ask you to opt for the data to store secretly when the user is going to shutdown the system.This tool can be activated by the Super User only.Pandora’s box can remove the data from RAM if required.

RAM only surfing

This is a browser called iceweasel that will surf Internet but will provide any access to your hard drive. The data you will access in the browser can not be seen to other users. But still there will a question that the data in RAM can be accessed , Pandora’s Box will look after this.

Anonymous Surfing

There is tool known as Anonsurf which helps in surfing Internet without leaving any traces of your Identity. This is done by TOR browser. All the traffic of the user will be directed by TOR browser. In India, TOR networks are active, so the anonymous surfing can be done easily. It will also hide your DNS via TOR.

Penetration Testing

Penetration testing is one of the critical testing of a software or network. This type of testing helps the hacker to know about the anomalies in the system. After he will knew about the bugs in that system He can help the system owner to increase the security towards it. While this information can be used in some unethical ways too. I won’t suggest you to think like that.

There are many tools by which pen testing can be done. Some of them are packet sniffer,man in the middle attacks, brute force attacks etc. If you are familiar in using Linux then you must know about the tools used in Kali & Backtrack linux, the it would be very easy to switch on to Parrot Linux.

This is a very summarized introduction about Parrot Linux. This will help the users to know more about the Parrot linux. In the next section. I will be telling about the installation of Parrot Linux.

Parrot OS Commands Tutorial PDF

  • sudo : – This command is used to get the Admin Access after you enter admin password.
  • su: – This command is for Root Access.
  • apt-get install: – This command install Tools from Distro’s Server.
  • apt-get update: – This command is used to check Update Repository From  Distro’s server.

Parrot Security OS System Requirements

The system requirements for Parrot are:

  • CPU: x86 with at least 700Mhz
  • Architecture: i386, amd64 (x86-64bit), 486 (legacy x86), armel, and armhf
  • RAM: At least 256MB for i386 and 320MB for amd64. 512MB recommended
  • GPU: No graphic acceleration required
  • HDD: ~16GB required for installation
  • BOOT: Legacy bios preferred

Buy These Linux Books to get a Kick Start in Linux Career

  • apt-get upgrade: – This is used to download Update Repository From  Distro’s server.
  • git clone: – This command is used to clone any file from GitHub Website.
  • cd .. : – Command to go back one step in a directory.
  • clear: – This command is used to clear the Terminal.
  • poweroff :- This command is to ShutDown the system.
  • 9. chmod +x Example.py : –  This command adds the executable permission for a file.
  •  ./ : – This Command Is Use For Run Python And Perl Programs. (./example.py )
  • ls: – Shows the list of files in the current Directory.

Download Parrot OS Tutorial PDF

Parrot Security OS default password and username – Parrot OS root password

In Parrot Linux live environment, the default username is user and the default password is toor.

Parrot Security OS 3.9 (Intruder) review & DownloadParrot OS 3.9 is the latest OS that is released by FrozenBox. This latest version of OS has mostly the same features that the former version has.The main Features of Parrot 3.6 are

  1. Fire-jail sand-boxing
  2. AppArmor,
  3. SELinux
  4. Tomoyo support

If you find the information useful then please give us your feedback to us & let us know about my work. You can also contact me via Facebook. Thank You.

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial

Parrot Linux OS Tutorial is a popular pentesting OS used by penetration testers. Here we are providing you some simple commands for the same in PDF.

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Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 11

Hello friends, as our linux hacking series has come to the 11th part. In the previous ten parts I told any basic commands that will make you familiar to Linux environment. However those who are practicing the tutorials must be able to use the Kali Linux in a better way than before. Now we will install linux apache server.

Install Linux Apache server

This article will tell you about the web servers that are installed in the Internet server machines. The name of this server is Apache Server. Apache server is the server program that is used in 90% of web servers. A hacker must be familiar with this server, its working, backend database & other things.

After you will learn about linux Apache server, you will be able to setup your own server.

Apache on your System

In many linux distribution, the Apache server is already installed, if your computer is not having a linux distribution then you can install it by downloading from LAMP stack.

LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, PERL, and PHP. These are the tools used in a website development. This LAMP is named as WAMP in windows platform because W stands for windows.

Download the LAMP server in your Linux computer. After the installation is complete, we will install a website for learning purpose. This will be helpful in hacking it.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 10

Start your Linux Apache Server

To start your apache server, go to services > HTTPD > apache start.

Open Default Website

Now apache server is started, you can open the default website in the browser after typing http://localhost/.

Open Homepage

The default webpage in apache is /var/www/index.html. The file in Apache can be edited. To edit the file use a text editor like  gedit, Kate, KWrite, emacs.

linux apache server
linux apache server

The localhost will be opened in the html format, we just need to change the setting to display the webpage we wanted to display.

Add HTML code

As the index file or the homepage of Apache server is displayed, you write some html code to replace it.

<html>
<body>

Best VPN

<h1> Technicalbud </h1>

<p> Learning hacks from technicalbud</p>
<p>world is the best place to learn hacking!</p>

</body>
</html>

Save the file & close the editor.

As we have saved the /var/www/index.html file, we can check the changes made in it. Open the browser & type http://localhost.

The webpage will show the output of html code we just wrote.

Install DVWA

After the web server, we have to install a website i.e. designed for hacking. You have to download it from here.

Unzip it & install it. Type the command.

unzip DVWA-1.0.8.zip -d /var/www

chmod 755 DVWA-1.0.8

Best VPN

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 9

This part is complete for now. Please tell me all the response that you feel after reading this. IN the next part we will install Mysql & Php & configure DVWM. Follow us on Facebook for more updates. Thank you.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 9 – Environment Variables in Linux Command Line

What is Linux Environment – Set environment variable Linux

In this article we are going to talk about the environment variable. In windows, there is same concept of environment variables, but nobody keeps an eye on it. If you are working on Linux then you have to work with the Linux environment variables. I am going to tell you all the things I know about Linux environment variables.

Linux Environment Variables Command Line

Environment variables are those variables that are available to all the users. There are some environment variables for every user whether it is a root user or a normal user. There are some default values that are assigned to these variables. If we use these variables then we can improve our performance & user experience in the System.

View Linux environment variables – Linux Environment Variables file

To view our environment variables, we can easily check by using the set command.

set

This command will show all the environment variables, user defined functions & other aliases. The name of environment variables are in uppercase like   HOME, PATH, HISTSIZE, etc. To check the value of any environment variable type

echo $PATH

we have to use $ sign to use a variable in Linux.

The variable PATH is used to store all the drive path that are used in the current session. If we want to clear all the values form the variable PATH, then we need to do this.

PATH =0

Also Read : Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 7

After we will close the terminal, the value of the variable that we just changed will be set to the default value. You can choose to set the value after the closing of your terminal. The command used for this is given below. Basically the command will export the value of environment variables to the next terminal.

export PATH

Change the name of terminal

This can be a fun activity. In this we are going to change the name of terminal from kali to “Best hacker”. Type this the prompt

PS1= “Best Hacker: #”

This will change the prompt name, but when you will exit the prompt, the name will changed back to kali. To change the name for ever, so that as many times I open the prompt, the name is same as Best hacker.  To do this type

export PS1

Changing Our PATH variable

PATH is a very important variable of Linux. When we type a command then the kernel searches it in the PATH variable . It the command is not found then the message shows “Command not found”.

echo =$PATH

As PATH contains many sub-directories in it. When we type any command & try to execute it, the command is first checked in the PATH directory or its sub-directory for the command definition.

linux environment variables
linux environment variables

We are going to use the command to execute an application in such a way that we can use it anytime without specifying the actual path of that application. For example we want to use aircrack-ng.

PATH=$PATH:/pentest/wireless/aircrack-ng

After this command will be executed by the terminal, the application aircrack-ng can be used anywhere by just typing the name.

Be careful about using this command, you should not add too many names in the PATH variable. If you will do this, the performance of your terminal will be slow down.

Also Read : Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 8

Done for the day. The information about Linux environment variable is complete. If you like the article please tell me in the comment box. Thank you.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 6

Learn Linux Network and troubleshooting Commands in Kali For Ex :- PING , TRACEROUTE , NETSTAT , DIG , NSLOOKUP , ROUTE &  HOST Command.

Hello friends, now we have reached to the sixth part of this hacking series. I am sure you must have read all the previous hacking series. I you haven’t then please read all of them carefully. In this article we are going to talk about some Linux networking command.

Linux Networking Command PDF – Network Troubleshooting Commands

Those who have read the previous articles they must be having a good knowledge for working in Linux. This articles is based on some linux networking command. If you are aware of the terms used in networking then it will be very helpful for you. If not , then you should mark the word you don’t know & read about them.

I am going to write some of linux networking command for you. These commands will be helpful for the person who is working a network.

Analysis of Network

The most common command which is used in Networking is ifconfig. In windows there is a command named Ipconfig. But command is way more useful than of window’s.

Syntax : ifconfig

After you type ifconfig & press enter, then all these information will be shown on the screen for a network. You can read about them afterwards.

In the first line it will show you the type of network & Hardware address. Second line will show you the IP address, broadcast address & mask.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 5

In the next paragraph that will show you the output with a letter lo. This lo means the loop back address or local host address. You can use the Local host address for the testing of web application via this address.

Linux networking command
Linux networking command

Change IP Address

Changing a IP address in a Linux can be done easily. As you know that DHCP protocol is used in the IP Assignment. You need to change the IP especially at the time of hacking. This will be useful to hide your identity in the network, but there are many things by which you can be identified.

To change the IP you can use the command ifconfig in the given format.

ifconfig eth0 192.168.19.11


To check whether the IP address has changed or not you can use the ifconfig command.The command will show you the new changed IP address of the computer.

Using the same command you can change the net-mask & broadcast address also.

ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.115 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255

DHCP Server

Linus has DHCP server daemon that is called dhcpd. This provides IP address dynamically to every computer. It also creates a log file which contains all the history of the IP address that were assigned to the terminals. This log file is useful after the attack occurred. This will trace the hacker in the network that has attacked in the network.

To get an IP address from a DHCP server, use dhclient command to get an IP address in the network.

dhclient

As you will type the command dhclient, you will be able to see some text on the terminal. It will request an Ip from it’s NIC (Network Interface Card). An IP will be allotted to the computer via DHCP server.

After the IP address is assigned to the computer. You see the IP address via ifconfig command.

DNS

DNS stands for Domain Name Services. This is a service which converts the name of a website to the corresponding IP address. IF this service do not work , then we have to remember the IP address of every website which we want to access.

Now there is one more useful command for the hacking aspirants . Command dig can be used by the user to get all the information about a website. This command is same as nslookup in Windows, this command is very powerful than nslookup. Every command in Linux is way too more than a Windows command. I have repeated this many times.

dig technicalbud.com

By using mx with the command , you can also know about the email servers of a website.The most common server used in the Linux is BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain).

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 4

This is done for this article. Please share the reviews with us after reading this in the comment box. Follow us on Facebook for more Updates. Thank You.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 5

install linux software package using terminal in Kali Linux App Store 

Hello friends, I am back with the fifth part of the Linux basics for hacking. If you are a new reader then I suggest you to check the previous article or you will not be able to understand the concepts. This article is about install Linux software.

Install Linux Software in Kali Linux

As we have already told you that all the tools used for hacking are written for Linux users. In the part 1,2,3 we told you basic commands that helps to use Linux. This article is focused to install linux software.

So as to install new software in Kali Linux, you have four methods. All four will do the same work. Read all of them to get a better understanding of the environment.

  • By Command Line: –  Kali Linux is based on Debian linux.  The command to install a new software in Kali Linux is apt-get & the components of Debian’s Advanced Packaging Tool. To install a software the command can be used in the given format.

apt-get name of software 

This command has some variations which can be seen by using man apt-get in the command line.

  • GPK application: – Gnome Package kit & Synaptic Package Manager are two graphical ways to install a new software in Kali Linux. GPK is used by a new user who do not know much about the Linux as he is not an advance user.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 3

  • Ubuntu Software Manager: – This is another graphical package manager that you have to install by a command. The command is written in the next line. It is already stored in the repository but needs to install by the command.

apt-get install software-center


May be these basics are not giving you the deep understanding about installing the software. I will provide you some basic examples on installing some software.

install linux software
install linux software

Install Skype in kali Linux.

  1. Download the latest version of Skype from the official website.
  2. Select the distribution carefully, for kali Linux choose Ubuntu 10.04.
  3. Download it in your system.
  4. Go to the directory where the downloaded skype file is located & then use this command.

apt-get install <name of Skype program>

After the Skype is installed in the Kali Linux, you can use this to make some video calls with your friends. You can use the method to install other programs.

After some of these basic programs you can be able to install some hacking tools.

We can install the software by the Terminal & Graphical mode both.

This article is finished now. In the next part we will be talking about the networking commands. If you haven’t read the previous parts of this hacking series, you should read this to clear the concepts.

Also ReadLearn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 4

Please drop a comment where you find any difficulty so that you can practice them properly. Waiting for your response. Follow me on Facebook to show some support. Thank You.

Learn basics of Linux hacking for hacking aspirants Part 2

basic linux commands list pdf for file and directory manipulations & navigation & Interview Questions 

In the previous part I gave a little basic for using linux file commands. This part will be on creating & working on directories. After reading & practising these command you will b able to work with files & directories. This will help you when you will be executing scripts.

Learn Linux File commands

Learn every variation of these basic linux file commands. You be exploring the files directories in some days. You should be mastered in using these file commands

Cd Command

This command was discussed earlier. Change directory is used in many variations.In the previous article we used the cd command as cd..Another variation is cd/ by which you can go to root directory, cd~ is used for moving in home directory.

Cd command is also used to move a directory from one location to other. You can use cd command to move to any directory by writing the location specifically. For ex. cd/abc/def/new-folder. Make sure Linux is a case sensitive OS , your spelling must be correct & exact letters are used. If any letter is written wrong then error message will be displayed.

One more way to use cd command is cd hackbook. Now as we are new-folder & hackbook is sub-directory in it then without writing the whole path again just write the name of subdirectory in it.

Listing command

List command will tell you all the contents that are inside a directory. This command can be used as ls. It will show you all the contents that are inside the current directory.

Also Read : Top Books to learn hacking in 2019

This ls command can be used with two switches. These switches are -a & -l. The command ls-a will show all the content inside the directory with all the hidden files too. Next ls-l , this -l will provide all the details of file  like permissions, size , group & date of creation.

Both can be used at same time also. Like this ls-la , this will show the details of hidden files also. We will be knowing about the permissions in the next article.

linux file commands
linux file commands

Touch Command

Command to create a new file in Linux. It is used as touch newfile. We can check the details of this new file by using the command ls-la. After this command a long list will be displayed

Make new directory

To make a new directory use mkdir command. write mkdir directory name & press enter. You directory will be created in the current directory.

Use Help to know more about commands

To get the manual for using the commands in linux. Man is the command that can help you to know about the commands. You can use the man command to know for any command. For example man cd. THis will provide you the way by which this command can be used by someone.

One more way to use manual is to use -h or –help in any command . This will also work as same as the man command works. For ex cd–help. It will provide all  ways to use this cd command.

For now this is over. I hope you will practice all these commands nicely . Remember the commands, this will be used very soon.

Also Read : Learn basics of Linux hacking part 1

Please give us feedback for this series. Write comments in the comments section to let me know. Like our Facebook for more updates.

Linux vs Windows vs Mac Performance , Gaming Difference

You must have heard of Linux OS. After reading this article you will know everything about it. This will cover all the aspects of Linux operating system.

About Linux – History of Linux / Linux History Timeline

Linux is an unix based operating system. It was developed by Linus Torvalds. It is an open source operating system   which means it is not owned by anyone or any organisation. It is a very powerful operating system for any user who is searching an alternative to windows OS. Linux was developed in 1991. It was the period of hardware upgrade. At that time DOS & Mac were the only operating system for the computers. As DOS was economical for the PC users while Mac was lot more expensive than DOS. In same decade , Linus Torvalds who was studying in the Helsinki university created a new core operating system. After the development was completed , it was given away by him for free.

Linux Academy Linux Architecture Linux Kernel

Now linux is one of the mostly used operating system in the IT sector for the security reasons. It is the favorite OS for the servers as it can work for years without any reboot or maintenance.

Reasons of linux for becoming so popular

There are various reasons why linux has become the most popular operating system in the IT sector businesses. We are writing some of those features which will make you fall in love with linux OS.

  • The first most interesting part of linux is that nobody owns it’s source code. The source code is also given free with this operating system. The source code can be modified by the user if the user wants to customize the Linux core according to his needs. There are no complex license agreements as in the case of windows or Mac.
  • There is no cost for this operating system. The core of linux comes with general public license or GNU. It is a very robust OS used in very big organisations. It can handle any number of users irrelevant of their resource usage. It is also very helpful in networking applications. Sometimes when a network computer or a server having very low disk space , linux handles the users request very efficiently.
  • Linux is a very hardware independent OS which can work in any type of hardware. Because of this portability it runs on variety of machines like PCs, Macs, mainframes, supercomputers, some cell phones and industrial robots. It also works in dual boot like windows & linux OR Linux & Mac. A very popular Linux operating in laptop computer is Ubuntu.
  • As we are in the threatening world of Viruses, malware attacks & other malicious activities. Linux is safe from all types of such attacks. This is because the platform is very less & the people who are using this OS are mostly ethical users of It industry.
  • As we told you above that the linux is open source , that is why the application software which are used in this platform are also freeware to the linux users.

Limitations Of Linux

As anything in this world is not perfect. There are some disadvantages of the OS. We are going to describe them to you so that you can be well informed about the operating system.

Disadvantages of Linux OS

  • The programs that were used in windows will be longer useful for linux. The application of windows software are of .exe format while Linux does not support .exe. Linux supports .gz, .tgz ,.ps & .txt. But now from some previous years windows emulator has been developed by the companies to fill the gap between windows & Linux OS.
  • There are very less peripherals like printer, scanner etc which are compatible with linux OS. However there are some hardware available which are used with linux OS. But the number of such hardware is very less.For example HP has provided a variety of hardware that is compatible with linux platform.
  • If any windows user who has just switched to the linux platform , he must be too much dependent on the GUI. However there is much better GUI in Linux as compared to the windows , but there are variety of functions that are done by commands in linux, their function is much better than the graphical one.

Linux vs Windows – Difference between Linux and Windows Operating System

  1. Linux kernel & GNU utilities are free to use. There is no money required to use linux OS. While if you want to use a windows operating system than you have to pay around $99 or more to use the Windows operating system.
  2. If any person who wants to work in linux based environment than he must need the deeper understanding with the linux working environment while if we talk about windows, then it is the easiest OS to use because of its GUI & user friendly features.If a windows user has to switch directly to Linux Os then he must learn many other things in order to work in the linux environment.
  3. Linux is way too reliable in terms of usage & real time processing. In the years of improvement windows has become more reliable than ever but still the level of reliability is much higher in linux as compared to the windows OS.
  4. Software Availability :- If you the check the variety of software that windows support is very high as compared to the linux. There are very less software which are supported in linux based OS while in case of windows , windows has the highest number of applications that support it’s platform.
  5. Cost of software :- The software that are available for linux is free while the softwares that are used in windows are not free & need money to purchase them.
  6. Security : The level of security is much higher in Linux to windows. The source code of the linux is available to the users. This enables the user to check & analyze the attack in the system. The vulnerability of Linux OS is less than Windows OS.
  7. Applications :- The application of linux OS is mostly scientfic & organisational. Linux is used in Servers , businesses, NASA. It can work with old hardware as well. Windows are used in home, gaming & entertainment. The software need to be upgraded regularly & the OS do not work in older hardwares.

Also Read : How to remove virus without Anti-virus

Linux vs Macintosh – Mac Vs Linux For Programming

Mac PC runs on OSX. Mac is a product of Apple Inc. There are aspects on which we will compare both OS in the many aspects.

Mac OS vs Linux Differences

  1. Flexibility :- If we use a OSX after using linux then we will see that there is not much independence for a user to do anything. For example if you want o change the desktop in a Mac PC then then you have to download Theme pack which will let you do this. In the case of linux this can be done in two or three clicks.Even linux can let you change the taskbar appearance by installing a different desktop manager.
  2. Open Source :- Apple took the BSD kernel to develop its own kernel known as darwin kernel. After that it was licensed under apple public source which is registered under Free Software Foundation. This Darwin kernel is still locked with Apple. Linux kernel is an open source to every user. Once Apple & open source has worked together to create OpenDarwin Kernel which is a hybrid of Linux & Mac OS.
  3. Command Line : OSX users don’t have much knowledge or need to work with command line. But every techy knows that the importance of command line is more when you need admin acess to the PC. In other words to have an administrative acess to a Mac PC, there are not enough commands in OSX.
  4. Hardware compatibility : In a PC who does not have much advance hardware in it, then OSX will not work better in that. But if we run a linux OS in it, the same PC will work better in terms of performance. Performance of OSX is very much dependant on hardware. Linux is not the same like Mac.
  5. Security : In terms of security , I witnessed a competition in which there were three platforms i.e. windows, linux & Mac. While both windows & linux were hacked & linux was not.The tools for the security are more advanced in linux as compared to Mac or Windows. Mac is also a secure OS but the level of securty that linux has can’t be compared.
  6. Portable:- Linux can be run on any machine unless its size or old hardware. Mac is not as portable in every computer. Linux data can be placed in either 64 bit or 32 bit. While in the Mac computer the files have restricted support in same architecture.
  7. Cost : The cost of using a Mac Machine is very higher. Th cheapest Mac I know is $ 1000. While linux can run on any old machine too. The cost of using the basic features of linux can be made by just an old computer & the Installation CD of Linux. While If you will use an old machine for running Mac OS you will suffer very slow response in Mac.

Linux OS
Linux OS

Now you know the various aspects of linux with other operating system. Linux is a freeware OS. Basically it is a kernel. Linux distributions take this kernel & combine with other software packages in order to provide different Linux distribution. If you will take the kernel & use it without any distribution than it will consume a lot of time in doing this.

You can use any of these Distribution in order to work in a linux environment.

Ubuntu Philosophy

Ubuntu is a very popular linux which is based on debian repositories. It works on GNOME 2 & Unity desktop environment.It updates Long term support(LTS) after every two years. In future there will be Ubuntu running on smartphones & tablet.

Ubuntu Philosophy
Ubuntu Philosophy

Linux Mint

Mint is based on Ubuntu Linux. Both ubuntu & mint uses same software repositories. Linuxmint is an loveable alternative to Ubuntu as it contains all the codecs & proprietary software which are not included in Ubuntu. It uses a traditional desktop called cinnamon desktop. It won’t let critical software updates which declared it as an insecure OS.

Linux Mint
Linux Mint

Debian Wheezy OS

It composed of open source software.The project was started in 1993. From the last 24 years it is still releasing newer versions. They are releasing newer versions very slowly as compared to others. This long time of work make this distribution more secure than others. Their main aim is to provide an secure OS with more user-friendly features.

debian
debian wheezy OS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

It is a commercial linux distribution based on fedora linux. Now the latest version are coming with collaboration with centOS. All the newer versions will be made by CentOS & Red hat. Officially CentOS is a part of red hat now.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux

OpenSuse Linux Tumbleweed

OpenSuse is a bleeding edge version of linux. In 2003 Novell purchased the OpenSuse. Once Opensuse was the best Linux in terms of user friendly feature, now ubuntu has taken the crown from it.

Open Suse
Open Suse

Kali Linux – Hackers Paradise

Kali Linux is debian based OS designed specifically for forensics & Penetration testing.It  is developed & maintained by an organisation called Offensive Security Ltd.It consists of more than 300 penetration testing tools.

Kali linux
Kali linux

Arch Linux Beginners Guide

It is based on KISS (keep it simple , stupid) principle.It is designed for computers that are of i686 and x86-64 architectures.It is mostly works under binary packages.

Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01
Install Arch Linux 2017.05.01

Parrot linux / Parrot Linux 3.6 Parrot AIR

This is also a debian based Os. It is designed for specific tasks such as Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation, Forensics and Anonymous Web Browsing. It is made by Frozen Team.The latest version of parrot linux is Parrot 3.4.1 named as CyberFrigate.

Parrot Linux
Parrot Linux

Also Read : Learn Ethical Hacking Online

These are some of the popular linux distribution which are used by me personally. If you are trying to select any of them for the learning you can download any of them from their official websites.

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How To Verify MD5 Checksum File in Linux Image (ISO) using Command Line

This post is aimed to explain the concept of Checksum (md5, sha256, & sha -1). The use of checksum in Linux & why it is used.

What is Checksum in Linux?

Checksum is a digital identity of a file. In other words you can say that Checksum is small size unit of data in a block of digital data to detect any error while the file is transmitted through a network or after it is stored.

To deepen your understanding for checksum, it is a long string of data which contains letters & numbers. These are used when you download a file from a network. For ex:- Linux distribution image, software packages etc.

Use of Checksum

The most common use of checksum is to check whether a downloaded file is corrupted.

For example the download page of Ubuntu places a SHA256 checksum for every ISO file available there. After your image is downloaded, generate a SHA256 checksum & verify the checksum to match the value mentioned in the site of Ubuntu.

What is Checksum in Linux?
What is Checksum in Linux?

If the value is not matched , then your version of downloaded file is corrupted during the download process.

How is Checksum generated?

Checksum is generated by Checksum algorithm. Think it as an input of a file & the output is checksum value of the file.There are multiple algorithms for generating checksum , the most popular algorithms are

  • Secure Hash Algorithms and variants (SHA-1, SHA-2 etc.) and
  • MD5 Algorithm

How to use checksum using GUI for a file

By using a GUI method, you can use GtkHash.

GtkHash is a nifty tool to generate & verify checksum. It supports a wide range of checksum algorithms. like algorithms – including SHA, MD5 and others. Here’s a list of supported algorithms:

  • MD2
  • MD4
  • MD5
  • MD6-224
  • MD6-256
  • SHA1
  • SHA256
  • TIGER128
  • HAVAL 128-3
  • ADLER32
  • SNEFRU256

How to Instal GtkHash on Ubuntu / Kali Linux

To install GtkHash on your Ubuntu system, run this command in your terminal.
sudo apt install gtkhash

& its done.

For selecting the checksum algorithms to use:

  • Go to Edit > Preferences menu option.
  • Select the ones you would like to use.
  • Hit Close button.

By default – MD5, SHA-1 and SHA256 is selected.

Using GtkHash

Using it is quite straight-forward.

  • Select the file you want to check
  • Get the Checksum value from the website and put it in Check box.
  • Click the Hash button.
  • This will generate the checksum values with the algorithms you selected.
  • If any one of them matches with the Check box, it will show a small tick sign beside it.

Here’s an example showing GtkHash generating checksum for UbuntuMATE iso image (ubuntu-mate-16.10-desktop-amd64.iso)

Command Line Checksum Tools

Linux distributions come with tools for checksum algorithms. The generation & verification of checksum can be done by them. The tools for the command-line checksum are :-

  • md5sum :- MD5 checksum tool
  • sha1sum :- SHA-1 checksum tool
  • sha256sum :- SHA-256 checksum tool

There are many more like this i.e. sha224sum, sha384sum etc. All uses sha256sum. We are using ubuntu-mate-16.10-desktop-amd64.iso” file for it.

Generating and Verifying SHA256 Checksum with sha256sum

Go to the directory where the .iso is saved.

cd ~/techbud

To generate SHA256 checksum, enter the command.

sha256sum ubuntu-mate-16.10-desktop-amd64.iso

This command will show the checksum on the terminal window.

Generating SHA256 Checksum for an ISO File

If the checksum generated matches with the provided in the Ubuntu MATE website, then your file is correctly downloaded.If the value is not same, then your file is corrupted & you have to download it again.Other tools like this are same.

 

Working of Checksum

The checksum are very delicate to work in the same. They are designed to check the corrupted files. If just one character in a file is changed, then the resultant checksum will be different from the good file.

The checksum is an effective way to check for a corrupted file.

If you have installed Linux after using the checksum, then its good. But if you haven’t , then have you faced any problem while installing the Linux OS.

That’s it for now. if you like this article, then please give your feedback in the comment sections. Don’t forget to share this with your friends. Thanks You.

Backbox Linux Version 5 review – The new updated Backbox v5 Hacking Tools for Pen Testers

As you know we bring the information of Newly released Linux based Distros. Today we are her to talk about an Ubuntu based hacking & penetration testing Operating system. You must have some pre information about this i.e. BackBox linux review.

BackBox 5 Linux Review

The development team of Backbox has developed it after 7 months of research. There are various changes made in it that includes Kernel 4.8 , new hacking tools with a new logo.

In most of the websites who talk about Linux & pen testing Operating system Kali Linux & Parros Security OS comes on top. There is one more OS that comes on the list with them i.e. Backbox Linux.

BackBox 5 Linux Review
BackBox 5 Linux Review

What is new in BackBox 5

Backbox was previously released on December 2016. Soon after the release Backbox 4.7 was improved with some bug fixes updated Kernel, base system & tools. The release of Backbox linux 5 was aimed to provide a better product that users can experience. The Backbox 5 is now released to fulfil the promise given last year.

Also Read :- Introduction To Parrot Linux

The Team of Backbox has proudly announced the release of Backbox v5. The developers have told that it took long time & development to achieve the product quality. The also told they have worked too hard for this.

Backbox Linux v5 Tools

Backbox Linux v5 Tools
Backbox Linux v5 Tools

As it was expected , Backbox will remove the outdated hacking tools & replace them with the new tools. Here is the list of all these changes.

  1. Updated Linux kernel 4.8
  2. Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS base
  3. Xfce 4.12 desktop environment
  4. LibreOffice 5.6.1.2
  5. Firefox 54.0
  6. Thunderbird 52.2.1
  7. New BackBox logo and identity
  8. All hacking tools updated

BackBox 5 Linux System requirements

The minimum requirement to run Backbox v5 on your machine are 1 GB RAM & 10 GB storage.

BackBox 5 Linux Download

You can download the ISO from the link given below. The size of image is 2.2 GB size.

https://backbox.org/download

If you find this useful, then please comment here. You can comment if you have anything to add here. Thank You.

Parrot Linux 3.7 Review Featured with Kernel 4.11 , Debian GNU/Linux 10 Buster, Debian 10 Testing

The latest release of Parrot OS 3.7 has been done by FrozenBox. This new version of Parrot OS is based on Debian GNU/Linux 10 Buster. The latest kernel 4.11 is the main attraction in Parrot 3.7 that provides wide range of updates & improvement in the new version.

Parrot Security OS review – Parrot Linux 3.7

Here we are going to provide you all the details of the newly released Parrot Linux 3.7.

In the early May , the release of Parrot 3.6 was done by the firm with all the updates & kernel 4.9. This version was based on  Debian GNU/Linux 9 Stretch, which I hope you know about.

After the two months of hard work in the development of new version, FrozenBox has released the Parrot OS 3.7. Parrot OS is one of the popular OS for Hacking purpose. Parrot OS is considered as the first alternative of Kali Linux.

Parrot 3.7 Based on Debian 10 Testing

There are some changes that are made in Parrot Linux are listed as follows.

  1. The base of Parrot OS 3.7 is now Debian 10 , that is known as buster.
  2. The other changes in the same is Kernel 4.11 which provides better hardware support as listed while release of Kernel 4.11 happened.

Debian GNU/Linux 10 Buster or Devuan GNU/Linux

A rumor went out in the Linux world that Parrot developer team is trying to switch from Debian GNU / Linux to Devuan GNU/Linux. After the release , they wiped out this rumor via a tweet “Our release team is evaluating a possible migration of our project from Debian to Devuan,”.

It seems that Parrot developer team is not ready yet to work with Devuan. They mentioned this in a Facebook Status —“It is not an easy migration and we have still to decide what to do.”

The new release has also introduced the ARC Theme. The update mechanism of Parrot OS is updated with the feature of showing progress of System upgrades. FrozenBox has already announced the wide range of fixes & improvements for the previous releases.

Parrot Security OS review - Parrot Linux 3.7
Parrot Security OS review – Parrot Linux 3.7

Parrot AIR 3.7

In Parrot 3.6 , a flavor of Parrot OS was launched with the name of Parrot AIR. In the new version , parrot has also provided a set of tools that are dedicated to wireless pen testing. This release wold improved the Parrot AIR experience.

Parrot 3.7 Release Notes

The most important features & points that are specified by the Parrot Team are listed here.

  1. Debian 9 was a stable version but there is an need for some important changes in Debian. The important change in the new version is updated packages which leads to lock the unstable branch of pre-testing freeze.
  2. There are no new features in the product but , the focus is just on the betterment of existing features.
  3. The introduction of ARC theme & the improvement in the auto-updater  in an attraction for the Parrot users.
  4. Linux kernel 4.9 was used earlier , but now the new 4.11 has been introduced for better support of hardware devices.
  5. Last but not the least, the core is now based on Debian 10 (testing).

There are various revisions that improves Parrot team. There was a server crash in France which leads to improve their infrastructure.

This results in central repository which is now replicated into 2 servers & both of them host the geo redirector that redirect the every request to one of their mirror servers around the world.

Parrot OS Raspberry Pi  – ARM Support for Embedded Board

A little review on the ARM side.  The repository supports armhf (armv7hf – 32bit with HF) and arm64 (aarch64/armv8 – 64bit), and all the ARM packages are perfectly synchronised with their equivalent x86 versions.

The official team of Parrot has specified that their ARM developer was busy in these months to finish ARM build on time. The current ARM images are based on Parrot 3.4 & available only for Raspberry Pi. They also tools that a new developer has just joined their team which leads to the old developer to work for other ARM boards like Pine64 which will be soon adopted as their official embedded board.

Parrot Linux Download

You can download the new version of Parrot OS from here.

https://www.parrotsec.org/download.fx

If you find the information useful then please write a comment for your personal experience with Parrot OS. Feel free to get more details from here. Thank You.